1968 er et begreb, udsat for had og hetz, men for os et oprørsår på linje med 1918, 1956, 1989 – og sidst 2011.
Året 1968 stod selvfølgelig ikke alene, mange begivenheder var bygget op i årene forud, men begivenhederne alene i kalenderåret 1968 berettiger til at tale om oprørsåret fra januar og frem gennem året (se Tidslinjen 1968 for begivenheder i årets løb).
Året ’68 var også åbningen for de klassekampe og ændringer der skete i årene frem til midten af 70’erne, både i Vest- og Østeuropa, men også året for afgørende begivenheder i de fleste industrialiserede lande. Denne linksamling focuserer på artikler mv., der omhandler året ’68 generelt og for perioden, hvor ’68 blev set som en åbning og begyndelse.
- Temasider: 1968 (Internationale Socialister, ISU). Link til Socialistisk Arbejderavis og – Revy’s artikler om 1968 + div. registrering.
- Oprør – Studenteroprøret på Københavns Universitet (1960erne.dk)
- Tema: 1968 – ett händelserikt år (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se). 1. Utomeuropeiska händelser (Vietnam, USA & Kina); 2. Europa (Frankrige & Tjeckoslovakien); 3. Sverige.
1968: Revolutionen når Europas hjerte. Af Alan Maass (Socialistisk Information, 28. juni 2018). “Over hele verden blev maj 68 i Frankrig en kilde til inspiration og eufori. Stemningen i tiden blev indfanget i overskriften hos et radikalt britisk blad: ‘We shall fight, we shall win – Paris, London, Rome, Berlin’.”
Hvad er der tilbage af 1968-revolten? (Autonom Infoservice, 22. maj 2018). “Et tilbageblik af Jean-Francois Cabral og Charles Paz, to franske 68’ere” + uddrag af Daniel Bensaid/Alain Krivine-bog.
Løb kammerat, den gamle verden er efter dig. Af Nikola Nedeljkovic Gøttsche (Information.dk, 3. maj 2018). “Foråret 1968 stod i oprørets tegn. Mod autoriteter i enhver form. For retten til selvbestemmelse. Fra Rio over New York til Beograd. Vi giver her 12 nedslag.”
Hvad stod 68-oprøret for?: en kommentar fra en venstreradikal. Af Alfred Lang (Autonom Infoservice, 3. maj 2018). “Skønt oprøret omkring 1968 ikke førte til de radikale samfundsforandringer, som oprørerne havde håbet på, så efterlod det alligevel dybe spor i tiden efter. 68-oprøret satte således gang i et hav af nye sociale bevægelser og antikapitalistiske projekter.”
Temanummer: 1968 – og efter: rundt om en kulturrevolution i Danmark (Arbejderhistorie, nr.3, 2010, s.1-86). Især Anne Stadager: Det åndelige ‘1968’ – og forholdet mellem ‘den indre’ og ‘den ydre revolution’ (s.18-33) (pdf).
1968 – dengang og nu. Af Jørgen Lund (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr. 279, 12. juni 2008). “Maj måned 2008 var 40-årsdagene for det franske maj 68 oprør. Studenteruroligheder, der bredte sig til barrikadekampe i gaderne, til generalstrejke og fabriksbesættelser.”
68-oprøret: “Remember the Revolution” (Autonom Infoservice, 7. november 2009). Indhold: Tariq Ali: Året der forandrede verden. Uddrag af hans essay. (med link til engelske original: The year that changed the world – En venstreradikal 68`er: 68-bevægelsen – myter og kampen om historien – Nogle autonome aktivister: Vietnamkongressen i Berlin (17.-18. februar 1968) og de forskellige politiske strømninger i den tyske 68-bevægelse.
Maj 68: Der er slået en revne. Lad os gøre den bredere. Af Jan Malewski (Socialistisk Information, 3. juni 2008). “Maj 1968 i Frankrig – med studenteroprøret og generalstrejken, som efterfulgte de unges gadekampe i Latinerkvarteret – var kulminationen på de anti-kapitalistiske, anti-imperialistiske og anti-bureaukratiske mobiliseringer over hele verden.”
Maj 68: ’Mere plads i dag til en anti-kapitalistisk venstrefløj end dengang’ (Socialistisk Information, 28. maj 2008). Interview med Alain Krivine, en af veteranerne fra det franske 68-oprør: “I 1968 var den yderste venstrefløj en lille organisation blandt studenterne, men uden nogen forankring i arbejderklassen. I dag er det næsten omvendt.”
”Det bevæger sig når vi går…”: Samfundskritik og utopi i 1960ernes og 1970ernes Danmark (Roskilde Universitets Center). “Projektet vil bidrage til vor forståelse af opbruddet og ser det desuden som sin opgave at indsamle kilder og vidnesbyrd til glæde for andre og eftertiden.” Også grundlag for tidsskriftet Arbejderhistories tema: 1968 og efter: rundt om en kulturrevolution i Danmark (nr. 3, 2010).
Fortællinger om Det Ny Samfund 1968-1970. I dette indslag beretter Allan Anarchos om udstillingen: Fortællinger om “Det Ny Samfund” 1968-1970 (Vimeo, 27:30 min.). Med links til tidslinjen om Thylejren m.m.
Elevoprør og studenteroprør i Danmark: Protestaktiviteter blandt lærlinge, elever og studerende 1960-2014 (pdf). Af Knud Holt Nielsen (DPU, Aarhus Universitet, 2015, 61 sider). Se også Knud Holt Nielsen: Nutidens uddannelsesprotester får 68’ernes til at blegne (Information.dk, 9. september 2016)
- Timeline: 1968: an extraordinary year (International Socialism, Issue 118, Spring 2008, p. 43-44)
- Protests of 1968 (Wikipedia.org). Overview and timeline of protests.
- Paris May-June 1968 (Marxists Internet Archive; France History Archive). Tema med Dates and Principal Events + masser af materiale.
- 1968: A Revolutionary Year (SocialistWorker.org, January 2018- ). “Socialist Worker contributors remember the great struggles of the revolutionary year of 1968 — and the lessons they hold for today.”
1968 – the long sleep ends. Part 99 in Neil Faulkner: A Marxist History of the World (Counterfire, November 4, 2012; online edition of Neil Faulkner’s book, Pluto Press, 2013). “The long sleep of the post-war period was brought to an end in 1968, as revolts erupted across the developed world.” See also Part 100: 1968-1975: the workers’ revolt.
Audio: The Fire Last Time – 1968 (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, 26 September 2018, 43 min.). “Neil Davidson discusses 1968 and the epoch of revolutionary upheavals it was a part of – from revolutions against colonialism in Africa and Asia to mass struggle against racism and sexism in America and Europe, to the student movement and the ’68 general strike in France, the largest strike in world history at the time.”
Worldwide “Moment of Madness”. By Gerd-Rainer Horn (Against the Current, Issue 196, September-October 2018). “The year 1968 marked one of those exceptional ‘moments of crisis and opportunity’ that periodically occur throughout history and leave a lasting mark on societies.”
Reading the Revolution: A memoir of 1968. By Dan La Botz (Verso, Blog, 23 August 2018). “Our reading in 1968 and thereabouts, done in the context of mass movements of social protest, helped to transform us into revolutionaries.”
1968: The year of dangerous living (New Politics, Issue 65, Summer 2018). “Martin Oppenheimer’s article was originally published in 1988 as a 20-year look back at 1968” + The 1968 Columbia Rebellion (ibid.). “Richard Greeman’s 1968 account provides a participant’s view of the Columbia University rebellion.”
1968: Revolutionary year (pdf). By John Molyneux (Irish Marxist Review, Vol.7, No.21, 2018, p. 15-24). “In country after country, from Vietnam to Mexico, from Chicago to Derry volcanoes of resistance erupted on what were largely an unsuspecting media and public. But despite their volcanic character it is clear, looking back, that the eruptions of 1968 did not come out of the blue.”
‘It was like a rocket: a fantastic display’: Reflections on May ’68. By Colin Barker (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, 28 May 2018). “In a speech to Manchester rs21 reflects on the ‘madness of May ‘68’, when, for a brief moment, everything seemed possible … the key lesson of it is that the spontaneous movement … wasn’t enough to win.” With link to an interview with Colin Barker: IS in the 60s: May 68 and after (RS21, 6 August 2015).
That was the year that was (London Review of Books, Vol.40, No.10, 24 May 2018). “To commemorate the 50th anniversary of May 1968, the London Review of Books carried a lengthy and vivid interview of Tariq Ali by the left wing playwright David Edgar.”
1968 seen from Britain. By Phil Hearse (International Viewpoint, Issue 520, May 2018). “None of the key events of 1968 happened in Britain, but they impacted dramatically on the configuration of the Left.”
1968: a year that’s still burning (Socialist Review, Issue 435, May 2018). “Chris Harman was both a participant in the events and analysed the movement that nearly turned the world upside down. Here we print extracts from his classic book about the period, The Fire Last Time: 1968 and After (Bookmarks, 1988, 406 p.). See also John Molyneux: Reviewing Sixty-Eight (International Socialism, Issue 38, Spring 1988, p.23-39).
The event itself and its effects … Looking back on May ‘68 (International Viewpoint, Issue 520, May 2018). “In 2008, in an interview with Francis Sitel for the journal Critique communiste Daniel Bensaïd looked back over the strategic debates which took place in May 1968, and especially in its immediate aftermath, among the militants of what became in 1969 the Communist League.”
Just Short of the “Conscious Leap”: Ernest Mandel in 1968 (Verso, Blog, 18 May 2018). “Jan Willem Stutje describes Ernest Mandel’s experiences in Berlin with Rudi Dutschke and on the barricades in Paris during 1968.”
Education, capitalism and the student revolt (1968). By Chris Harman and others (International Socialism, Issue 158, Spring 2018, p.137-165). “The pamphlet, chapters one and four of which are reproduced here … was one of the first Marxist attempts to explain why student revolts developed in the 1960s and to outline their possibilities and limitations.”
The legacy of 1968. By Gerd-Rainer Horn (Against the Current, No.136, September/October 2008). Gerd-Rainer Horn is author of the book: The spirit of ’68: rebellion in Western Europe and North America, 1956-1976 (2007). See also John Rose’s review of the book: A history lacking in hindsight (International Socialism, Issue 123, Summer 2009)
On May ’68 (Against the Current, No.136, September/October 2008). Interview with Michael Löwy, author of numerous works on socialist thought from Marx to the present as well as on liberation theology in Latin America.
The meaning of May 1968. By Charles Paz, Jean-Francois Cabral (International Viewpoint, Issue 401, May 2008). “May 1968 was the catalyst for the emergence of a new political and social generation. The profound modification of the relationship of forces between the classes produced direct effects until the mid-1970s.”
Contesting the gains of 1968 (Socialist Worker, Issue 2101, 17 May 2008). “Chris Bambery looks at the fear that still drives the ruling class to attack the legacy of 1968.”
1968: The year the world caught fire (Socialist Review, Issue 325, May 2008). “The events of 1968 inspired a generation and shaped struggles around the world for years to come. Chris Harman, a student activist at the time, looks back at this tumultuous year.”
1968: Year of revolutionary hope. By Joel Geier (International Socialist Socialist Review, Issue 59, May–June 2008). “In the 1960s the radicalization started inside the United States. It began with the sit-ins of the civil rights movement in the South in February of 1960. And by 1968 the radical movement in the United States was probably larger, and more active, than in practically any other country in the world.”
1968: Year of revolution (Socialism Today, Issue 118, May 2008). “Peter Taaffe takes an overview of 1968, a year of international revolution.”
Seizing the time: Tony Cliff and 1968. By Ian Birchall (International Socialism, Issue 118, Spring 2008, p. 95-112). See also: France – the struggle goes on. By Tony Cliff & Ian Birchall (Socialist Review Publishing, 1968, 80 p.; online at Marxist Internet Archive)
1968: lessons learned (Dissent Magazine, Spring 2008; online at Internet Archive WayBackMachine). “In this, its fortieth-anniversary year, we ask: What did ’68ers get right? What did they get wrong?” Contributions by Marshall Berman, Robin Blackburn, Mitchell Cohen, Ralf Fuecks, Vivan Gornick, Michael Kazin, Enrique Krauze, Lillian B. Rubin, Christine Stansell and Michael Walzer.
Where has all the rage gone? (The Guardian, March 22, 2008). “In 1968, fury at the Vietnam war sparked protests and uprisings across the world: from Paris and Prague to Mexico. Tariq Ali considers the legacy 40 years on.”
1968 and All That: Be Realistic! Demand the Impossible! (1968andallthat.net; online at Internet Archive WayBackMachine). An international conference and bookfair to celebrate the hopes and dreams of May 1968 – forty years after. 10 May 2008, London. Events – Essays – In Memoriam, Red but Dead – Bookfair, Facebook link + 16 posters Mai 68.
Archive: Forty years for Pandora (1978) (International Socialism, Issue 118, Spring 2008, p. 45-52). ” Why celebrate the anniversary of 1968? Media commentators treat the year as one of student rebellion and youthful excess, but it was much more than that, as the late David Widgery explained in this article, written on the tenth anniversary and still very relevant today.”
1968: The mysterious chemistry of social change. By Mike Marqusee (Red Pepper, April-May 2008). “It was a year of contradictions and confusions, many of which continue to confront anyone who wants to take part in a movement for radical change.”
Looking back – and ahead: letters from the Editors (Against the Current, No. 133, March/April 2008). “While 1968 was a year of upheaval and of inspiring struggles both large and small, it wasn’t marked by massive immediate victories.”
Theme: “Women remember 1968” (Against the Current, No. 133, March/April 2008). With Chude Pam Allen, Sheila Michaels, Elizabeth “Betita” Martinez, Roxanne Dunbar Ortiz, Barbara Winslow, Jane Slaughter, Judith Ezekiel and Loretta Ross. Scroll down.
1968: the power of the masses (Socialist Worker, Issue 2084, 19 January 2008). “Ian Birchall looks at the lasting legacy of a year in which the oppressed and exploited fought back and proved they can win.”
1968: the year the monolith cracked. By Jonathan Neale (Socialist Review, Issue 219, May 1998). “Several things stand out about 1968. It was a world movement. It began with a crisis of the old orders. Because it exploded into a rigid and reactionary world, it produced great hope.”
The fire last time (New Statesman, 22 April 1988). “A 1968 anniversary industry is springing up; but, argues Paul Foot, it takes a revolutionary to ask the most illuminating questions about that revolutionary time.”
Reviewing Sixty-Eight. By John Molyneux (International Socialism, Issue 38, Spring 1988, p.23-39). Review of David Caute, Sixty-Eight: The Year of the Barricades (Hamish Hamilton, 1988, 470 p.), Ronald Fraser, 1968: A Student Generation in Revolt (Chatto & Windus, 1988, 408 p.), Tariq Ali, Street Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties (Collins, 1988, 280 p.), Chris Harman, The Fire Last Time: 1968 and After (Bookmarks, 1988, 410 p.).
New forms of struggle: Selections from Intercontinental Press July 1968 (Verso, Blog, 31 May 2018). “Articles from a July 1968 edition of Intercontinental Press — on the French May, the Prague Spring, and repression in Greece — register the immediate response of the Fourth International to some of the political upheavals that defined that year.”
A look at 1968 through posters (Verso, Blog, 15 May 2018). “Activist posters from 1968 movements around the world, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the uprisings.”
Atelier Populaire: Paris 68 posters (Libcom.org, June 3, 2011). “Image gallery of dozens of posters from the uprising which began in May 1968 in Paris, with English translations …”
Keep Calm Gallery: Mai 68 – Street Posters from the Paris Rebellion.
Sale of a very limited number of printers proofs the book above. 40 posters with translation!
1968 og det der fulgte. Af Thomas Ekman Jørgensen og Steven L.B. Jensen (Gyldendal, 2008, 306 sider). Se forfatternes artikel på Information.dk (17. april 2008).
1968 – dengang og nu. Red. af Morten Bendix Andersen og Niklas Olsen (Museum Tusculanums forlag, 2004, 364 sider). Bidrag af Tania Ørum, Morten Thing, Ole Grünbaum mfl.
Ungdomsoprøret i Danmark: Et portræt af årene, der rystede musikken, billedkunsten,teatret, litteraturen, filmen og familien. Af Niels Martinov (Aschehoug, 2000, 317 sider).
Studenteroprøret: Dokumenter og udsagn. Red. af Bente Hansen og Hans Henrik Jacobsen (Gjellerup, 1968, 176 sider).
Det danske (“undergrundsblad”) tidsskriftet “Superlove” (se artikel på Wikipedia.dk)
The Fire Last time: 1968 and After. By Chris Harman (Bookmarks, 1998/1988, 410 p.). See extracts: 1968: a year that’s still burning (Socialist Review, Issue 435, May 2018) + review by John Molyneux (Socialist Review, Issue 325, May 2008) + review article by John Molyneux (International Socialism, Issue 38, Spring 1988, p.23-39). Kan købes for 150 kr. på Modstand.org.
1968 – Marching in the Steets. By Tariq Ali and Susan Watkins (Bloomsbury, 1998, 224 p.)
The Mexican student movement of 1968. By Ubaldo Oropeza (In Defence of Marxism, 2 October 2018). “We publish this detailed article about the movement, its origins, development and aftermath, as well as the main lessons that can be drawn from it.”
Senegal’s street fighting years (Verso, Blog, 1 August 2018). “Researcher and activist Pascal Bianchini describes the lasting effects of the 1960s–70s student movement in Senegal and the condition of the Senegalese left today.”
The Argentine May. By Horacio Tarcus (Verso, Blog, 19 July 2018). “As elsewhere, 1968 in Argentina was marked by increasingly militant struggles waged by workers and students, but the ‘Argentine 68’ had its own tempo and would not explode until May 1969.”
The Yugoslav students on the wave of revolts in 1968, interview with Dragomir Olujić (Part 1) + Part 2 (LeftEast, June 25-29, 2018). “Few know that Yugoslavia also saw its own student revolt in 1968, strongly supported by the working class but also by important Yugoslav Marxist intellectuals.”
1968 and the Spanish State: the year in its context. By Josep Maria Antentas (Verso, Blog, 19 June 2018). “Understanding the Spanish 68 requires an understanding of the rise of anti-Francoism in the previous years and its evolution after the state of exception declared in January 1969.”
Mad World: radical psychiatry and 1968 (Verso, Blog, 19 June 2018). “Hannah Proctor on the influence of radical psychiatry on the events of May ’68.”
The Soviet ’68. By Giuliano Vivaldi (Verso, Blog, 16 June 2018). “In the Soviet Union, 1968 marked the end of reformist optimism and the beginning of a more cynical era.”
1968: an end and a beginning for Mexico (Verso, Blog, 15 June 2018). “William Booth on 1968 in Mexico.”
A turning point for the Sandinistas: Nicaragua’s 1968. By Andrew Ryder (Verso, Blog, 14 June 2018). “In 1968, Carlos Fonseca and the FSLN adopted a new strategic approach, laying the groundwork for the 1979 revolution.”
May 1968 in Senegal. By Omar Guèye (Verso, Blog, 14 June 2018). “May 1968 in Dakar was a defining moment in the political history of Senegal.”
Africa’s 1968: protests and uprisings across the continent. By Heike Becker and David Seddon (ROAPE, 31 May 2018). “In fact, the 1960s as a whole constituted an exceptional decade of popular protest across Africa.”
‘Power to the People’: the 1968 Revolt in Africa. By Heike Becker (ROAPE, 29 May 2018). ” For a start, here are two vignettes of student protests that come to mind; both took place in 1968 on the continent. The first uprising happened in Dakar, the second in Cape Town.”
Malaysia’s ‘Second Emergency’ (1968–89). By Gregor Benton (Verso, Blog, 29 May 2018). “The upsurge of armed struggle in Malaysia represents one of the lesser noticed repercussions of the 1968 developments in Vietnam and China.”
Storm in the Philippines (Verso, Blog, 25 May 2018). “Alex De Jong on the Philippines in the global ’68.”
The May ’68 that was not May ’68: Latin America in the Global Sixties. By Aldo Marchesi (Verso, Blog, 24 May 2018). “During that decade, Latin America witnessed major social, political, and cultural mobilizations that spawned several historical processes still ongoing today.”
Sweden and the long 1968. By Kjell Östberg (Verso, Blog, 23 May 2018). “Sweden’s 1968 can be most clearly registered in the context of a wave of radicalization that stretched from the 1950s to the 1980s.”
Post-68 Student uprisings and the rise of the Moroccan Marxist-Leninist Movement. By Ghassane Koumiya (Verso, Blog, 22 May 2018). “Partly inspired by 1968 student uprisings around the world, the New Left in Morocco emerged as a revolutionary alternative to the traditional Communist parties and the nationalist movement.”
A hidden struggle: China’s Cultural Revolution in 1968. By Charlie Hore (Verso, Blog, 21 May 2018). “China’s Cultural Revolution was a key reference point for huge numbers of activists in 1968, but by then the CR was all but over.”
‘Down with the Pipe and the Poodle!’: Yugoslavia, 1968. By James M. Robertson (Verso, Blog, 20 May 2018). “The events of June 1968 in Yugoslavia both revealed the contradictions of self-management socialism …”
The long Japanese sixties. By Naoko Koda (Verso, Blog, 18 May 2018). “A communist league of students founded in 1948 in Japan, the Zengakuren amassed power over two decades …”
Old left, new left and Australia in the ‘long 1968’ (Verso, Blog, 18 May 2018). “Did the events of 1968 reach Australia? Jon Piccini and Evan Smith on the “long ’68” and the old and new left in Australia.”
Trapped in between: 1968 in Greece and Turkey. By Kenan Behzat Sharpe (Verso, Blog, 18 May 2018). “The 1960s explosions in Greece and Turkey were neither of the First or Third Worlds, the core or the periphery: they combined elements of both.”
1968 and the “Thai Seventies”. By Giles Ji Ungpakorn (Verso, Blog, 17 May 2018). “Thai society was profoundly influenced by the wave of struggles throughout the world around 1968 — but there was a slight time-lag, with radicalisation reaching its peak in the 1970s.”
1968: a crushing defeat for the Indonesian Left. By Vannessa Hearman (Verso, Blog, 15 May 2018). “In 1968, Suharto’s authoritarian New Order regime obliterated the Indonesian Communist Party’s efforts to rebuild after the 1965 massacre.”
Turkey’s 68. By Demet Lüküslü (Verso, Blog, 15 May 2018). “The 1968 generation in Turkey first emerged as a student movement focused on reform within the university system, but towards the end of the sixties it evolved into a revolutionary movement …”
Karameh: The Palestinian resistance’s 1968 baptism of fire. By Michel Warschawski (Verso, Blog, 13 May 2018). “1968 saw the first military victory for armed Palestinian forces against the Israeli army.”
When March 68 in Tunis preempted the Paris Spring. By Frédéric Bobin (Verso, Blog, 10 May 2018). “Two months before May 68 in Paris, the student far Left in Tunisia revolted against Habib Bourguiba’s post-independence régime.”
“Global 1968” on the African continent. By Heide Becker (Verso, Blog, 8 May 2018). “Africa should not be left blank on the map of scholarship that seeks to understand 1968 in a global perspective.”