Demonstration i Argentina 2001. Photo: Pepe Robles
Demonstration i Argentina 2001. Photo: Pepe Robles Demonstration i Argentina 2001. Photo: Pepe Robles

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Indhold

 

Forord

Den 19.-20. december 2001 eksploderede Buenos Aires og andre storbyer i Argentina i opstandslignende massedemonstrationer som protest mod den dybe økonomiske og politiske krise, som havde ramt landet. Omkring 1970 var Argentina på omtrent samme økonomiske udviklingsniveau som fx. Italien og 30 år senere blev landet ramt af en økonomisk krise, som kan sammenlignes med krisen i Tyskland og USA i begyndelsen af 1930erne med omfattende forarmelse af befolkningen til følge. Vi har her samlet en række artikler og sites, som diskuterer udviklingen i Argentina: den katastrofale nyliberalistiske økonomiske politik, som udløste katastrofen (efter “rådgivning” fra IMF og Verdensbanken), udviklingen i massebevægelsen (de arbejdsløse, lokalrådene, fabriksbesættere, fagbevægelsen, venstrefløjen osv.) og kampen for et bedre samfund.

Bjarne A. Frandsen
Juli 2003. Revideret maj 2011.


Se også på Modkraft.dk/Tidsskriftcentret:

Emneindex: Latinamerika / Latin America


 

Leksikale

Leksikon for det 21. århundrede

Argentina
En længere historisk artikel + en større samling aktuel statistik.

Wikipedia.org

Argentine economic crisis (1999–2002)

2001argentina-zanon-460.jpg

Artikler og sites på dansk (og nordisk)

Gaia

Yvonne Zimmermann: Selvforvaltning i Argentina (nr.41, sommer 2003, s.10-11)
“På keramikfabrikken Zanon i Argentina, har arbejderne overtaget produktionen. Det handler ikke blot om at bevare arbejdspladser – fabrikken er blevet et symbol på kampen for et værdigt liv.”

Mempo Giardinelli: Argentina: de neoliberales mareridt (nr.36, forår 2001, s.36-40)
“I slutningen af sidste år brød et længe ulmende oprør ud i Argentina. Latinamerikas ellers rigeste land var nærmest gået bankerot og befolkningen ville ikke længere betale prisen for regeringens forfejlede politik.”

Kpd.net

Tema: Argentina: krise og opstand: IMF-politkens fallit

Modkraft.dk

Isabel Sande Frandsen: Fabriksbesættelser sætter dagsordnen (Kontradoxa, 4. maj 2006)
“Arbejderdemokrati og sociale hensyn blomstrer på besatte fabrikker. Interview med Hugo Méndez.”

Gregers Friisberg: Den argentinske krise og globaliseringen (Kontradoxa, 12. juni 2003)
“Historien om, hvordan et land kunne rutsje fra nyliberalt mønsterland i 1990’erne til et land i dyb politisk og økonomisk krise.”

Le Monde Diplomatique

Maurice Lemoine: Hellas vs Argentina (nr.4, april 2012)
“Den græske krise er ikke et nytt fenomen. Men andre land som har vært tynget under store gjeldsbyrder, har valgt å slutte å betale, slik Argentina gjorde i 1990-2010. Eksemplet viser ikke bare hvilke faktorer som førte til katastrofen, men også hva som kan gi Hellas litt pusterom.”

Røde Fane

Olaf Svorstøl Sierraalta: Argentina 2002 (nr.1b, 2003, s.9-14)
“Argentinas utenlandsgjeld beregnes å være om lag 150 milliarder dollar, dvs ca 1.400 milliarder norske kroner. Med en befolkning på ca 37,5 millioner innbyggere, tilsvarer dette ei gjeld til utlandet på over 37.000 kroner per innbygger. Til sammenlikning: Norges nettofordringer på utlandet var ved utgangen av 2001 anslått til om lag 485 milliarder kroner, dvs tilgodehavende på ca 107.000 kroner per innbygger.”

Fakta om Argentina (nr.1b, 2003, s.15)

Peter M. Johansen: En opprører fra Argentina (nr.1b, 2003, s.16-17)
“Argentina har en årlig matvareproduksjon som kan brødfø over 300 millioner. Hver natt tråler over 100.000 sultne mennesker gjennom Buenos Aires på jakt etter matrester, forteller Jorge Smith.”

Olaf Svorstøl Sierraalta: Gråt Argentina! (nr.1b, 2003, s.18-19)
“Argentinerne gråter over den håpløse situasjonen landet er i. Likevel danser de sin tango.”

Sabot

Argentina og anarki: fra opstand til revolution (nr.1, sommer 2002, s.21-25; online på Aktivist.nu)
“Magten hos arbejderklassen i oprør står klart – den har lykkedes i at vælte talrige politikere. Spørgsmålet er om det vil lykkes den at vælte alle regeringer og alle chefer? ”¦ Kan de argentinske anarkister opmuntre og hjælpe disse spæde skridt til at blive organer for arbejdermagt?”

Socialistisk Information

Eduardo Lucita: Besatte fabrikker og arbejderselvstyre i Argentina (nr.172, jan. 2003, s.24-29, online på Internationalt Forum)
“Som et direkte resultat af en ekstraordinær og hidtil ukendt kombination af en social og politisk krise, der er ligeså dyb som langvarig – kombineret med en udstrakt social selvforvaltning – er Argentina i dag et formidabelt socialt eksperimenterende laboratorium.”

Martin Hammer: De pengeløses oprør (nr.167, aug. 2002, s.16-17)
“Argentinerne har grebet til selvforvaltning for at klare krisen. Dels i nabofællesskaber, hvor kvarteret selv vil regere uden om politikerne, og dels i pengeløse samfund, hvor varer i solidaritet byttes gennem papirlapper, og hvor et råd fastsætter prisen.”

Ernesto Herrera: En vred stemme (nr.161, jan. 2002, s.18-19)
“Parlamentsvalget den 14. oktober afspejlede en vigtig udvikling i en af de dybeste kriser, Argentina nogensinde har været i.”
Jean-Philippe Divès: Oprør i neoliberalismens mønsterland (nr.161, jan. 2002, s.16-17)
“Vreden over den økonomiske og sociale katastrofe er nu eksploderet i det, der engang var Latinamerikas mønsterland.”

Socialistisk Standpunkt

Alan Woods: Argentina: revolutionen er begyndt (23. april 2003)
“Vrede demonstranter stormer Argentinas kongres og antænder bål og smadrer inventar, efter at en fredelig demonstration imod regeringens økonomiske politik udviklede sig. Også ved præsidentpaladset har der været uroligheder. Folk er vrede over begrænsninger på hvor mange penge man må hæve om måneden, og der er frygt for at regeringen vil konfiskere folks opsparinger..”

Solidaritet

Michael Schølardt: Uro i baghaven (nr.4, dec. 2002, s.23-31)
“Argentina synes modent til revolution. Borgerskabet hverken kan eller vil styre landet, mens den brede befolkning har fået nok. Men årtiers brutal undertrykkelse og likvideringer har sat sine spor på venstrefløjen, således eksisterer der ikke et parti eller bare en blok af arbejderpartier, der kan lede den sociale kamp.” (Artiklen er p.t. ikke online.)

Websites / Collections of articles in Eglish

In Defence of Marxism

Theme: Argentina
Kommenteret artikelsamling på spansk og engelsk.

International Viewpoint

Index: Argentina
Artikler 2001-

Jay’s Leftist and ‘Progressive’ Internet Resources Directory

Section: Argentina leftist and ‘progressive’ links

LabourStart : Where trade unionists start their day on the net.

Labour news from Argentina

Leftist Parties of the World

Argentina
Directory of “the entire spectrum of political parties, organizations and groups which consider themselves to be leftist or have origins in leftist movements.”

Workers’ Liberty

Featured topics: Argentina

World Socialist Web Site

World news: Argentina

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Articles in English

Covert Action Quarterly

James Petras and Henry Veltmeyer: Argentina: between disintegration and revolution (nr.74, fall 2002, s.27-33; online på Third World Traveler)
“Two plans, two classes. Argentines struggles to build a future.”

Salomón Partnoy: Disasters of neoliberalism: Argentina in flames (nr.72, spring 2002, s.29-34; online på Third World Traveler)
“Argentina, bankrupted by Bush I & Bush II.”
Se også sitets sektion South America Watch

Dollars & Sense

Arthur MacEvan: Economic debacle in Argentina: the IMF strikes again (nr.240, marts-april 2002; online på Third World Traveler)
“The recent political upheaval in Argentina lends new strength to the argument that IMF policies not only fail to bolster economic development but also lead to social and political disintegration. It also provides new opportunities to call for alternative strategies that support democratic, egalitarian forms of economic development.”

Estrategia Internacional

Jorge Sanmartino: A year on from the revolutionary days in Argentina: a balance sheet of the political strategies of the left (nr.19, jan. 2003)
“In this historical crisis none of the classes or class factions in conflict are capable of imposing a complete victory upon their enemy. The general picture is somehow a ‘strategic tie’, in which all contestants are bleeding out, the crisis of power remains unresolved and the ongoing revolutionary process is drawn out in time, with its ebbs and tides. The old parties of the regime are in crisis and deeply split.”

Eduardo Molina: Social and economic transformations in Argentina in the 1990s (nr.14, nov-dec. 1999)We should place Argentina within the worldwide crisis of capitalist accumulation that opened up 25 years ago; and the combination of different developments in the sphere of the world economy, politics and of the international class struggle.”

Global Exchange

Paul Blustein: Argentina didn’t fall on its own: Wall Street pushed debt till the last (August 3, 2003)
“In the late 1990s Wall Street firms touted Argentina as one of the world’s hottest economies as they raked in fat fees for marketing the country’s stocks and bonds. Thus were sown the seeds of one of the most spectacular economic collapses in modern history, a debacle in which Wall Street played a major role.”

International Socialism

Robert Sáens and Isidoro Croz Bernal: The driving force behind the ‘Argentinazo’ (nr.98, spring 2003, s.77-87)
“Two Argentinian activists chart the debates since the popular uprising in Argentina in December 2001, and argue that the organised industrial working class must be central to the movement if it is to unite the different sections and demands of the popular assemblies.”

Chris Harman: Argentina: rebellion at the sharp end of the world crisis (nr.94, spring 2002, s.3-47)
“The people of Argentina exploded onto the streets in December 2001, no longer willing to pay for the crisis caused by their rulers. After toppling four presidents in as many weeks, where will the protests go now? Chris Harman looks at the history of struggle in Argentina from the pitched battles between workers and the state in 1919 to the present day. He assesses the balance of forces in the current revolt, and asks who is in a position to win the leadership of a struggle whose outcome will be decisive for the global movement against neo-liberalism.”

International Socialist Review

Tom Lewis: Argentina: the next step (nr.22, marts-april 2002)
“If time is Duhalde’s nemesis, it favors his opponents for the moment. The social movements and left political parties are building crucial networks of solidarity and action between unemployed and employed workers, as well as among the more than 150 neighborhood assemblies. But activists who are already organized need more time to win the largest trade unions – whose leaders support Duhalde – to a united front. A mass revolutionary party also has yet to appear, and it can only emerge from further experiences of joint mass struggle.”

Tom Lewis: Argentina’s revolt (nr.21, jan.-feb. 2002)
“Workers in Argentina overthrew the government of President Fernando de la Rúa in a mass revolt December 19–20. The protests, as well as sharp conflicts within the Argentine ruling class, initially hampered the opposition’s effort to create a new government. Despite the confusion, one certainty jumped to the fore: A week of popular upheavals, marked by the government’s violent but unsuccessful attempts at repression, had ended the austerity regime of economy minister Domingo Cavallo and challenged the International Monetary Fund’s stranglehold over Argentine society”.

James Petras: Rebellion in Argentina: “You have to take action from below”(nr.21, jan.-feb. 2002)
“James Petras discusses the Argentinian revolt against neoliberalism.”

International Viewpoint

James D. Cockcroft: The Argentinazo one year on (nr.347, feb. 2003)
“Without workers a factory does not function. But without bosses, yes, it functions – and very well indeed! With all the other comrades we are going to demonstrate that the nation functions with the hands of working people and not with the thieving hands of the politicians (Raúl Godoy, worker at worker-controlled factory Cerámicas Zanón and secretary-general of ceramics workers union).”

Claudio Katz: Argentina: them and us (nr.341, juni 2002)
“At the time writing, the political crisis in Argentina has intensified and no one knows how much time remains in the life of the present government. President Eduardo Duhalde is unable to arrive at a decisive course of action, and with the fall of Economics Minister, Jorge Lenicov Remes, a debate has opened up that embraces the full spectrum of economists who support the ruling class over what will take the place of present administration, in face of the melting away of its political authority.”

Claudio Katz: A strategic discussion (nr.337, jan.-feb. 2002)
“The advances made by the left in the Argentine elections of October 14, 2001, along with new successes in the university elections and the achievement of the first united demonstration with a common programme for the crisis, confirms that the left, in the form of a coalition, may be beginning to take shape as an alternative focus in the current crisis. What is the significance of this new coalition? What is different from the past and what are the similarities with comparable processes in other countries? What strategies are being discussed in the Argentine left for the building of a broad popular movement?”
See also Index: Argentina

Monthly Review

Joesph Halevi: The Argentine crisis (vol.53, nr.11, april 2002, s.15-23)
“Historically, monetary crises have been related to hyperinflation, from which Argentina has often suffered. Hyperinflation is generally viewed as a calamity leading to the destruction of the capitalist monetary system of circulation. In the present Argentine crisis, however, there has been a complete implosion of economic and monetary relations due to hyperdeflation. This is the strangulation of the economy by the requirement to pay an unsustainable debt.”

Luis Becerra: Argentina: an alternative proposal to overcome the crisis (vol.53, nr.11, april 2002, s.24-33)
“‘There is no alternative’ has always been wishful thinking at best, at worst a deliberate lie, on the part of the ruling powers. From out of the ruins to which neoliberalism has brought Argentina, its onetime much-heralded model of success, now come the unsilenced voices of radical economists. We present here an English translation of a proposed alternative solution to the Argentine crisis. The proposal was set out on January 24, 2002, by Argentine economists as a starting point for discussion within the emerging popular movement.”

James Petras: The unemployed workers movement in Argentina (vol.53, nr.8, jan. 2002, s.32-45)
“The third and newest wave of social movements is centered in the urban areas. It includes the dynamic barrio-based mass movements of unemployed workers in Argentina, the unemployed and poor in the Dominican Republic, and the shantytown dwellers who have flocked to the populist banners of Venezuelan President Hugh Chavez. In addition to the urban movements, new multi-sectorial movements, engaged in mass struggles that integrate farm workers and small and medium-sized farmers, have emerged in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, and Paraguay.”

NACLA Report on the Americas

Eric Hershberg: Why Argentina crashed: and is still crashing (vol.36, nr.1, juli-aug. 2002)
“U.S. and IMF demands played a large role in sparking the Argentine crisis. But domestic politics also played a part, and until recently there was no shortage of support within Argentina for many misguided policies.”

New Left Review

David Rock: Racking Argentina (nr.17, sept.-oct. 2002, s.55-86)
“Meltdown and pauperisation in what was once Latin America’s wealthiest economy. David Rock analyses the social and political ‘longue durée’ of the largest sovereign default in history, and worst casualty of doctrinal neoliberalism to date.”

New Politics

Hernàn Camarero, Pablo Pozzi, Alejandro Schneider: Unrest and repression in Argentina (nr.25, summer 1998, vol.7, nr.1, s.16-24)
“Beneath the organized left there is a broad, but very atomized, resistance movement. The combination of popular expectations in parliamentary politics and weakness, and confusion, of the left means that most of these struggles do not come together into anything even remotely resemling a political alternative. However, these movements are slowly and hesitantly developing new forms of organization and struggle.”

Review of Radical Political Economics

Gerard Duménil and Dominique Levy: Imperialism in the Neoliberal era: Argentina’s reprieve and crisis (pdf) (vol.38, nr.3, summer 2006, s.388-396; online på forfatternes site)
“The Argentinean crisis in the late 1990s and early 2000s was another manifestation of various ‘neoliberal crises’ that struck Latin America, Asia, Turkey, and Russia. During the 1990s, Argentina underwent typical neoliberal reforms: further opening of trade, liberalization of capital movements, convertibility, pension funds, and so on in the general context of large public and external debt rendered unbearable by interest rates’ rise in 1979.” Artiklen er online som pdf-fil på forfatternes site.

Socialist Review

Argentina’s 2001 crisis: The lessons for Greece (nr.405, september 2015)
“The debt crisis that is tearing Greece apart has echoes in Argentina at the beginning of this century. Heike Schaumberg draws out lessons from the workers’ response to neoliberal strangulation.”

Chris Harman: Crying out for leadership (nr.275, juni 2003, s.17)
“The recent election in Argentina teaches us lessons on how to organise.”

Chris Harman: Swimming with the tide of revolt (nr.263, maj 2002, s.18-20)
“As renewed political crisis sweeps Argentina, Chris Harman following a recent visit to the country argues there is a huge opening for the revolutionary left, provided it breaks from its sectarian past “.

Chris Harman: Taste of our power (nr.260, feb. 2002, s.18-19)
“Can workers take control in Argentina? Chris Harman examines the evidence.”

Demonstration i Argentina 2001. Photo: Pepe Robles
Demonstration i Argentina 2001. Photo: Pepe Robles

 


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