Stokeley Carmichael at UC Berkeley’s Greek Theater, October 29, 1966 Image Source;
Stokeley Carmichael at UC Berkeley’s Greek Theater, October 29, 1966 Image Source;
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Linkbox med samling af links om den afro-amerikanske kamp i USA + materiale fra Tidslinjen.
(Socialistisk Bibliotek, påbegyndt januar 2009)

Black Power
Black Power

Black Power




“The strong slogan of “Black Power” was introduced in the liberation struggles of 1964’s voter registration march through Mississippi. Stokely Carmichael (1941-1998), as head of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, was credited with the spread of this slogan in many of the major protest marches of the 1960’s …”

Se også flere links på Tidslinjen (Socialistisk Bibliotek):

  • Om W.E.B. DuBois, se 23. februar 1868, medstifter af borgerrettighedsbevægelsen i USA og af den pan-afrikanske bevægelse.
  • Om Hubert Harrison, se 27. april 1883, vestindisk-amerikanske politisk aktivist.
  • Om Marcus Garvey, se 17. august 1887, afroamerikansk nationalist-leder.
  • Om første amerikanske borgerrettighedsorganisation, NAACP, se 12. februar 1909
  • Om Franz Fanon, se 20. juli 1925, revolutionær kolonialisme-kritiker.
  • Om Martin Luther King, se 15. januar 1929, baptispræst og borgerrettighedsforkæmper.
  • Om Rosa Parks, se 1. december 1955, busboycot i Alabama.
  • Om Little Rockoptøjerne, Arkansas, se 29. september 1957
  • Om første Sit-in, se 1. februar 1960, butikskampagne i North Carolina.
  • Om ‘Freedom Riders’ i USA’s Sydstater, se 4. maj 1961
  • Om Kwame Ture/Stokely Carmichael, se 15. november 1998
  • Om Malcolm X, se Malcolm X (1925-1965): Linkbox om den militante sorte muslimske leder Malcolm X (Socialistisk Bibliotek)
  • Om C.L.R. James, se C.L.R. James (1901-1989): Linkbox om vestindisk-britisk-amerikansk socialist.


Sorte Pantere

Black Panther Party
Black Panther Party

15. oktober 1966

Black Panther Party for Self-Defense stiftes i Oakland, Calif., USA, af Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale, med et “Ten-Point Program”.


The Black Panther Party (Marxists Internet Archive; History, USA). “A history of the Black Panther Party, with original documents, described from a working-class perspective.”

 Intersectional Black Panther Party History Project (IPHP). “Created in July 2016 when four African American women historians, Angela D. LeBlanc-Ernest, Tracye Matthews, Mary Phillips, and Robyn C. Spencer, came together … about the need for deeper analysis of Panther women.”

Gensyn med sorte pantere (Point of View International, 5. november 2016). “Jørgen Dragsdahl, der kom tæt på bevægelsen dengang, var inviteret med som gæst til jubilæet i Oakland.”

Sorte Pantere og hvide venstreorienterede (Ungkommunisten, 3. årgang, nr.4, maj 1970, s.2-20; online på Tale af Connie Matthews fra the Black Panther Party, holdt i Carlton Bio i begyndelsen af april 1970.

Women in the Black Panther Party: A roundtable (International Socialist Review, Issue 111, Winter 2018-19). “Leela Yellessety spoke to three authors of recent books that highlight the contribution of women in the Black Panther Party and draw out some of the lessons.”

The Panthers can’t save us now. By Cedric Johnson (Catalyst: A Journal of Theory and Strategy, Vol.1, No.1, Spring 2017, p.56-85). “This essay is written against the prevailing Black Power nostalgia that informs contemporary struggles against police violence.”

The revolutionary legacy of the Black Panthers. By David Bliven and Alan Maass (, November 3, 2016). “What can today’s left learn from the Black Panther Party, formed 50 years ago in California?”

Remembering the Black Panther Party. By Robert Greene II (Jacobin: Reason in Revolt, October 31, 2016). “Fifty years after its founding, the Black Panther Party’s antiracist, anticapitalist vision remains just as relevant today.”

Vanguard of the 1960s revolution (, September 21, 2015). “Interview with Emmy Award-winning documentary filmmaker Stanley Nelson’s about his new film Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution.” See review by Gary McFarlane (Socialist Review, Issue 406, October 2015) + review by Clare Hurley and Fred Mazelis (World Socialist Web Site, 9 October 2015) + review by Season Butler (Counterfire, October 29, 2015) + review by Louis Proyect (The Unrepented Marxist, February 17, 2016)

Lessons from the history and struggle of the Black Panther Party. By John Peterson (In Defence of Marxism, 9 July 2015). “We take this opportunity to look back at and learn from the successes and failures of one of the most inspiring experiences of our movement.”

‘Shoot as well as cook’: The Black Panther Party, sexism and the struggle today. By Shanice McBean (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, December 31, 2014). “We need to remember the contributions of black women to past struggles if we’re to take forward the fight for justice today.”

On the program of the Black Panther Party: Which way forward for black workers and youth?, Part 1 (In Defence of Marxism, 1 October 2014) + Part 2 (2 October 2014). “John Peterson analyses the programme of the Panthers, highlighting its strong points as well as its weaknesses.”

‘You can’t kill a revolution’. By Matthew Garrett (Against the Current, Issue 168, January-February 2014). Review of Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Jr., Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (University of California Press, 2013, 539 p.)

The Black Power era (, October 25, 2011). “Alan Maass examines the legacy of a movement that shaped the international left.”

‘The Black Power Mixtape’: Danny Glover discusses new doc featuring rare archival footage of Angela Davis, Huey P. Newton, Stokely Carmichael (Democracy Now! January 24, 2011; about 30 min.)

The Black Panthers: defiance in the face of repression. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2126, 8 November 2008). “The FBI could not tolerate the Panthers’ revolutionary challenge, and declared them the ‘top domestic threat’.”

The Black Power revolt. By Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor (Socialist Worker, US, Issue 642, August 31, 2007). Review of Peniel Joseph, Waiting ’Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black America (Henry Holt, 2006)

The struggle for Black Power. By Jesse Hagopian (International Socialist Review, Issue 53, May-June 2007). Review of Judson L. Jeffries, Black Power in the Belly of the Beast (University of Illinois Press, 2006)

The Black Panthers (Socialist Worker, UK, Issue 2032, 6 January 2007). “Yuri Prasad looks back at a period of hope and anger.”

The cult of the gun. By Dan Katz (Workers’ Liberty, 23 March 2006). Review of Bobby Seale, Seize The Time (Vintage, 1970) and Elaine Brown, A Taste of Power (Pantheon, 1992)

Lessons from the Black Panthers (Socialism Today, Issue 104, October 2006). “Hannah Sell looks at the lessons to be learnt from its rise and fall.”

The Black Panthers reconsidered. By Samuel Farber (Against the Current, No.64, September/October 1996, p.22-31). “The widely reviewed autobiographies of two key leaders of the Black Panther Party, a major study of that political organization, a movie by Melvin and Mario Van Peebles … have renewed interest in the Black Panthers.”

The murder of Fred Hampton (, March 2, 2012). Ben Blake interviewed Fred Hampton’s brother Bill Hampton. This article appeared in the July 1977 issue of Socialist Worker.

The Black Panther Party splits. By Laurie & Sy Landy (International Socialism, No.48, June/July 1971, p.6-9). “The reasons for the present disintegration are to be found in the unresolved contradictions of the party’s political outlook and in objective changes in the American scene.”

Se også:

DRUM and the revolt of the Black working class. By Khury Petersen-Smith (, February 8, 2019). “Fifty years ago, a new organization of revolutionary Black workers was leading strikes and showing the electrifying potential for a movement that combined labor militancy and Black Power.”

Black Power at the point of production, 1968–73. By Lee Sustar (International Socialist Review, Issue 111, Winter 2018-19). “Yet what is too often neglected in both African American studies and US labor studies is an account of the extensive African American activism in the industrial unions …”

Revolutionary struggles of Black workers in the 1960s. By Dan Georgakas (International Socialist Review, Issue 22, March-April 2002). “I began to attend various events, and over time I met many of the individuals who would eventually create the League of Revolutionary Black Workers.” See also extract from his book at Detroit: I Do Mind Dying (Redwords, 1998).

The League of Revolutionary Black Workers: A historical study. By A. Muhammad Ahmad (History is a Weapon, 1978). “To approach a study of the League of Revolutionary Black Workers, an independent Black radical workers’ formation in Detroit, as a consequence of the Black liberation movement, several questions should be answered in the research.”

Black Power (Marxists Internet Archive; C.L.R. James Archive). Talk given by C.L.R. James in 1967: “I believe that this slogan is destined to become one of the great political slogans of our time.”


Panther (1995). Full Length Movie. Dir. by Mario Van Peebles, manus: Melvin Van Peebles. (, 2 hours). See review by Talat Ahmed: Public enemies? (Socialist Review, Issue 191, November 1995). “… and recommends the books that best provide the background to the film.”

<strong>Black</strong> Power Mixtape 1967-1975
Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975

The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975 – A documentary in 9 chapters. Written and directed by  Göran Hugo Olsson (YouTube, 14:52 min.)
Svensk dokumentarfilm fra 2011 om den amerikanske Black Power-bevægelse: filmen “består udelukkende af fantastisk arkivmateriale optaget af nysgerrige svenske tv-journalister på rejse i USA i de omvæltningsfulde år, hvor de sorte amerikanere for første gang samlede sig i kampen for frihed, lighed og borgerrettigheder …” Vist flere gange på DR Tv under titlen ” De sorte Pantere 1967-1975″
– The Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975 (filmens website) (PBS, 9 min.)
– ’The Black Power Mixtape’: Danny Glover discusses new doc featuring rare archival footage of Angela Davis, Huey P. Newton, Stokely Carmichael (Democracy Now! January 24, 2011; about 30 min.). Del 1 (11 min.) på; del 2 (7:55 min.); del 3 (12:22 min.)
– Black Power Mixtape 1967-1975: A militant fight against racism brought to life. By Brian Richardson (Socialist Worker, Issue 2277, 12 November 2011)
– The Black Power Mixtape 1967–1975. Edited by Göran Olsson (Haymarket Books, 2014)
– The Black Power era. By Alan Maass (, October 25, 2011)

The socialism of the Black Panthers. By Robert Greene II (Jacobin, 15 March 2016). Review of Stanley Nelson Jr’s Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution: “A new documentary on the Black Panther Party overlooks the group’s socialist core.” See also review by Clare Hurley and Fred Mazelis: No lessons learned (World Socialist Web Site, 9 October 2015) +
review by Gary McFarlane (Socialist Review, Issue 406, October 2015).

Black Panther: from Huey Newton to Wakanda. By Shabbir Lakha (Counterfire, February 24, 2018). Review of Ryan Coogler’s Marvel Comics-film: “Black Panther is a landmark film for representation and presentation, but the politics ignores structural issues of class and race.” See also review by Ken Olende: Black Panther raises tough arguments about liberation (Socialist Worker, Issue 2592, 15 February 2018) + Krystal Kara: Believe the hype about Black Panther (, February 23, 2018) + Nick Barrickman: Ryan Coogler’s Black Panther: A hollow “defining moment” cloaked in identity politics (World Socialist Web Site, 22 February 2018) + Thomas F. McDow: Searching for Wakanda: The African roots of the Black Panther story (Roots, February 15, 2018) + Sameem Rahimi: Behind Wakanda’s utopian vision (Solidarity & Workers’ Liberty, Issue 464, 14 March 2018).

Black Panther Party logo
Black Panther Party logo


  • Eldridge Cleaver: Sjæl på is: åbne breve til USA (Rhodos, 1969, 185 s.)
  • Jørgen Dragsdahl: Det Sorte Panterparti: Amerikas revolutionære avantgarde (Røde Hane, 1970, 202 s.)
  • Huey P. Newton: Lad os holde ideen om det revolutionære verdenssamfund og Huey P. Newtons uovervindelige tanker højt (Særtryk af Politisk Arbejde, u.å., 16 s.). Huey P. Newton’s budskab på Boston College 18. nov. 1970.
  • Huey P. Newton: Forsvar for selvforsvar (Politisk Revy, 1971, 80 s.)
  • Bobby Seale: Tiden er inde: det sorte panterpartis historie (Gyldendal, 1971, 375 s.)
  • Hvis de kommer om morgenen: modstandsrøster. Af Angela Davis, Ruchell Magee, Soledad-brødrene (Tiden, 1972, 176 s.)
  • Angela Davis: En selvbiografi. Af Angela Davis (Gyldendal, 1975, 361 s.)
  • Bobby Seale: Den ensomme vrede: selvbiografi (Rhodos, 1978, 329 s.).


Se også Tidslinjen:

OL 1968

De olympiske lege i Mexico City i 1968: Ved medaljeoverrækkelsen i 200 m.-løb for herrer 16. oktober 1968 demonstrerer de amerikanske løbere Tommie Smith (guld) and John Carlos (bronze), bl.a. med Black Power-bevægelsens behandskede knyttede hånd.


Linkbox: Black Power ved OL 1968 (Socialistisk Bibliotek)

Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King fødes i Atlanta, Georgia 15. januar 1929. (Myrdes 4.4.1968 i Memphis, Tennessee).


Martin Luther King taler. Foto fra "I have a dream"-talen, 1963, se link nedenfor.
Martin Luther King taler. Foto fra “I have a dream”-talen, 1963, se link nedenfor.

Se også Tidslinjen:


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