Linkbox om dødsstraf, fængsler, og fangeforhold i USA.
USA er et af de mest ulige og uretfærdige samfund i den rige verden – og dét samfund, hvor der begås flest statslige mord. Tallet kulminerede i 1999, hvor der blev der henrettet 98 fanger i USA – det højeste antal i 50 år. Samtidig er der omkring 2 mio. i fængsel, mere end noget andet land i verden. I de første 75 år af 1900-tallet var der ca. 110 fængslede pr. 100.000 indbyggere, men i 1975 begyndte det at ændre sig, med den private fængselsindustris fremmarch, og i dag er tallet firedoblet. Størstedelen af de indsatte er fattige, hjemløse, psykisk syge, narkomaner, alkoholikere, analfabeter, etniske mindretal osv. Og den sociale uretfærdighed bliver endnu større, når man ser på de dødsdømte: alene halvdelen af de indsatte på dødsgangen er afro-amerikanere/latinoer.
Vi har her lavet en linkbox, hvor hovedvægten er på forholdene i USA, men der er også materiale om dødsstraf på verdensplan.
Bjarne A. Frandsen
Marts 2004. Revideret februar 2012.
Campaigns: Death Penalty
On death penalty around the world.
Amnesty International USA
Campaigns: Abolish the Death Penalty
“The death penalty violates international human rights law. While most of the world has rejected the death penalty, the United States and a few other countries account for the majority of executions.”
Campaign to End the Death Penalty (CEDP)
“We are a national grassroots organization that has chapters in several cities across the country. We are committed to the fight to end the death penalty in the United States. We hold meetings and forums to help educate the public and expose the truth about the racism and unfairness of the death penalty.”
Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty (CCADP)
“Big, somewhat messy, Canadian site, dealing mostly with USA. Canada abolished the death penalty in 1976.”
Section: Death row prisoners by country/state.
Critical Resistance (CR)
“A national grassroots organization committed to ending society’s use of prisons and policing as an answer to social problems.”
Death Penalty Information Center (DPIC)
“The Death Penalty Information Center is a non-profit organization serving the media and the public with analysis and information on issues concerning capital punishment. The Center was founded in 1990 and prepares in-depth reports, issues press releases, conducts briefings for journalists, and serves as a resource to those working on this issue.”
Section: History of the death penalty.
Death Penalty News & Updates
News and statistics (since 1977).
Jay’s Leftist and ‘Progressive’ Internet Resources Directory
Subsections: Death Penalty
National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty (NCADP)
“Since its inception in 1976, NCADP has been the only fully staffed national organization exclusively devoted to abolishing capital punishment. NCADP provides information, advocates for public policy, and mobilizes and supports individuals and institutions that share our unconditional rejection of capital punishment.”
Section: Facts and Figures
Prison Activist Ressource Center (PARC)
“The source for progressive and radical information on prisons and the criminal prosecution system.”
“An open and uncensored forum networking prisoners, prisons and the world.”
Topics: The death penalty
Ongoing coverage and analysis: Capital punishment and the injustice system.
Third World Traveler
Section: Prison Watch
Section: Justice Watch
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
World Coalition against the Death Penalty
“The Coalition brings together legal associations, unions, local governments, non-governmental organizations and others who are committed to the struggle against the death penalty.”
Section: Worldwide database.
Kampagner: Afliv dødsstraf.
Q&A: Svar på alle spørgsmål om dødsstraf.
Karen Carlsson: Dødsstraf (juli 1998/januar 2002, 40 s.).
Indhold: Dødsstraf og menneskerettigheder – Dødsstraf i Danmark – Dødsstraf i USA – Mumia Abu-Jamal – Dødsstraf verden over.
Betalingssite, som er gratis tilgængelig enten på dit lokale bibliotek eller på din hjemme-pc efter tilmelding på biblioteket.
Christine Lundgaard: Fængselsindustrien: en god forretning (nr.32, forår 2001, s.22-27).
“I USA er antallet af fanger steget eksplosivt i de seneste tyve år. Over to millioner amerikanere sidder i dag indespærrede. Fængselsvæsenet er blevet en industri, som vokser sig større på bekostning af andre sektorer i samfundet, og som bliver stadig mere privatiseret – og globaliseret. Den tidligere politiske fange, Angela Davis, fortæller i denne artikel om udviklingen af det, hun kalder USA’s fængselsindustrielle kompleks.”
Leksikon for det 21. århundrede
“Læs om blandt andet: Dødsstraf i Danmark, dødsstraf i USA, dødsstraf og menneskerettigheder, samt statistikker med mulighed for opdatering. Vi har samlet nye tal og vigtige informationer.”
Dansksproget site til undervisningsbrug for de 12-19 årige.
Columbia Law School
James S. Liebman m.fl.: A broken system: error rates in capital cases, 1973-1995 (pdf) (June 12. 2000).
“This Report addresses a different and broader question: the reliability-indeed, the bare rationality-of the death penalty system as a whole. It asks whether the mistakes and miscarriages of justice known to have been made in individual capital cases are isolated, or common?”
James S. Liebman mfl.: A broken system, Part II (pdf) (February 11, 2002).
“Part II of our study addresses two critical questions: Why does our death penalty system make so many mistakes? How can these mistakes be prevented, if at all? Our findings are based on the most comprehensive set of data ever assembled on factors related to capital error-or other trial error.”
See also James S. Liebman mfl.: A broken system: the persistent patterns of reversals of death sentences in the United States (pdf) (Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, Vol.1, No.2, July 2004, p.209-261).
Ken Silverstein: US: America’s private Gulag (June 1st, 2000).
“What is the most profitable industry in America? Weapons, oil and computer technology all offer high rates of return, but there is probably no sector of the economy so abloom with money as the privately run prison industry.”
Julie Light: The prison industry: capitalist punishment (October 28th, 1999).
“The prison industry now employees more than half a million people — more than any Fortune 500 corporation, other than General Motors.”
Christian Parenti: The prison industrial complex: crisis and control (September 1st, 1999).
“This article explores each of the crucial points on the prison-business nexus, and then offers a different explanation for the lockdown economy: one based not on specific corporate interests, but rather on an analysis of criminal punishment as a class struggle from above.”
Reese Erlich: Prison labor: workin’ for the man (Issue 54, Fall 1995, p.58-63).
“Private business and state prison systems have found a lucrative captive labor market. Civilian jobs and prisoners’ rights are on the line as corporations set up factories and business behind bars.”
Phil Smith: Private prison: profits of crime (Issue 46, Fall 1993, p.26-30 + 63-65).
“The trend to for-profit prisons raises questions about what happens when those running prisons lack public accountability and have a vested interest in locking up more and more people.”
Vicky Pelaez: The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery? (March 10, 2008).
“Human rights organizations, as well as political and social ones, are condemning what they are calling a new form of inhumane exploitation in the United States, where they say a prison population of up to 2 million – mostly Black and Hispanic – are working for various industries for a pittance.
International Socialist Review
Phil Gasper: Prisoners of ideology (Issue 52, March-April 2007).
“America’s draconian approach to criminal justice is beginning to unravel.”
Marlene Martin: Death penalty in retreat (nr. 52, marts-april 2007).
“Executions are halted in Florida and California as doubts spread about lethal injection.”
Paul D’Amato: The color of justice (Issue 12, June-July 2000, p..29-31).
“‘And Justice for Some,’ a new study from by Eileen Poe-Yamagata and Michael A. Jones, reveals the strong racial bias in the way the criminal justice system treats Black and Latino youth. The report confirms what has long been known by ordinary Black, Hispanic and Native American people in this country: that minorities are more likely to be arrested, detained, prosecuted, tried, sentenced as adults (if juveniles), and imprisoned (and imprisoned longer) than their white counterparts.”
Eric Ruder: Death penalty on trial (Issue 11, Spring 2000, p.29-37).
“When republican Illinois Gov. George Ryan announced a statewide moratorium on the death penalty on January 31, the debate over capital punishment was transformed. Ryan cited the fact that since 1976, Illinois has executed 12 people but released 13 from death row who were found to be innocent. He declared, ‘Until I can be sure that everyone sentenced to death in Illinois is truly guilty, until I can be sure with moral certainty that no innocent man or woman is facing lethal injection, no one will meet that fate’. Ryan’s announcement is long overdue and represents a major victory for opponents of the death penalty in Illinois and around the country.”
Paul D’Amato: The Democrats and the death penalty (Issue 6, Spring 1999, p.9-14).
“During his 1992 election campaign, then-Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton stopped off in his home state to oversee the execution of Ricky Ray Rector, a man so brain-damaged that on the night of his execution he set aside his dessert to eat after he returned to his cell. This was a clear signal to all who were paying attention that Clinton was going prove his toughness on crime by showing his solid support for the death penalty.”
Hanna Holleman mfl.: The penal state in an age of crisis (Vol.61, No.2, June 2009, p.1-17).
“… we can speak of a crowding out of welfare state spending (health, education, social services) by penal state spending (law enforcement, courts, and prisons) in the United States during the last third of a century.”
Richard D. Vogel: Capital punisment update (Vol.56, No.7, December 2004).
“The issue of the death penalty is more critical now than it was in 1972. Then there were 334 prisoners under sentence of death in the United States – today there is more than ten times that number.”
Richard D. Vogel: Silencing the cells: mass incarceration and legal repression in U.S. prisons (Vol.56, No.1, May 2004, p.37-43).
“People without a voice are not people in any meaningful sense of the word. Silenced people cannot express their ideas; they can neither consent nor protest. They are reduced to being pawns in the schemes of the powerful, mendicants who must accept whatever is imposed upon them. In order to keep people in a state of subjugation, silencing their voices is essential. Nowhere is this clearer than in U.S. prisons.”
Richard D. Vogel: Capitalism and incarceration revisited (Vol.55, No.4, September 2003, p.38-55).
“‘Capitalism and Incarceration’, written by the author and published in Monthly Review twenty years ago (March 1983), analyzed the relationship between the capitalist economy and the prison system in America … This update on capitalism and incarceration confirms how much worse the prison problem has become in the last twenty years.”
Theme: Prisons and executions: the U.S. model (Vol. 53, No.3, July-August 2001, p.1-141):
The editors: A historical introduction (ibid., s.1-18).
“In this double issue of Monthly Review, we hope to demystify the booming prison system in the United States and draw out the important political implications for the left and all who cherish human freedom. In this introduction we will sketch out the historic rise of the prison system, and its crucial relationships with capitalism, neoliberalism, and racism.”
Christian Parenti: The ‘new’ criminal justice system: state repression from 1968 to 2001 (ibid., p.19-28). The article is online at Defending Justice.
“Consider again the numbers: in the last twenty years the Justice Department’s budget grew by 900 percent; over 60 percent of all prisoners are in for non-violent drug crimes; an estimated one-in-three black men between the ages of twenty and twenty-nine are under some type of criminal justice control or sought on a warrant; nationwide some 6.5 million people are in prison, on parole or probation. From the left it is clear that the United States is an over-policed, surveillance society that uses prison as one of its central social institutions.”
Michael Tigar: Lawyers, jails, and the law’s fake bargains (ibid., p.29-41).
“Assume that Canada and the Western European countries have about the right number of people in jail. Assume that the social problem of crime is not terribly different in those countries than in the United States. Understand that our incarceration rate is five to eight times that of those other countries. If these assumptions, and this understanding, are even nearly valid, 80 percent of the people in American jails should not be there.”
Susie Day: Cruel but not unusual: the punishment of women in U.S. prisons (ibid., p.43-55).
“After years of neglect, the issue of women in prison has begun to receive attention in this country. Media accounts of overcrowding, lengthening sentences, and horrendous medical care in women’s prisons appear regularly. Amnesty International-long known for ignoring human rights abuses inside United States prisons and jails-issued a report, two days shy of International Women’s Day 2001, documenting over 1,000 cases of sexual abuse of U.S. women prisoners by their jailers. However, we seldom hear from these women themselves. And we never hear from women incarcerated for their political actions.”
Martha Russell and Jean Stewart: Disablement, prison and historical segregation (ibid., p.61-75).
“The story of disablement and the prison industrial complex must begin with a trail of telling numbers: a disproportionate number of persons incarcerated in U.S. prisons and jails are disabled. Though Census Bureau data suggest that disabled persons represent roughly one-fifth of the total population, prevalence of disability among prisoners is startlingly higher, for reasons we will examine later.”
Gregory Frederick: Prisoners are citizens (ibid., p.76-88). The article is online at PrisonerLife.com.
“It’s an ugly place. Even with subtle hints of spring in the atmosphere and the early-morning sun highlighting houses in the distance across the Hudson, there’s something thick and rancid in the aura of the place. It’s as if the colors of the few trees and struggling grass plots and stolid buildings have all been crushed and melded together to form a soupy, lifeless gray. Stone and rusted iron, shiny, razored concertina metal rolling across all the perimeters give the place an air of cruelty and constant suffering.”
George Winslow: Capital crimes: the political economy of crime in America (vol.52, nr.6, nov. 2000, p.38-53).
“It is important to ask fundamental questions about the causes of crime. In recent years, most American politicians have simply offered a few stock answers – violent Hollywood movies, permissive liberal ideas, the changing American family, and a general decline in traditional moral values. This has not only produced disastrous policies; it has also shifted the debate away from one of the key causes of crime: corporate power.”
Eric Lotke: The prison-industrial complex (Vol.17, No.11, November 1996).
“Punishment is now a leading rural growth industry. The 1980s saw so many people dragged in shackles from inner city neighborhoods to rural prisons that 5 percent of the national increase in rural population between 1980 and 1990 is accounted for by prisoners. Prisons have replaced factories as the economic centerpiece of many small towns.”
New Left Review
Loic Wacquant: From slavery to mass incarceration (Issue 13, January-February 2002).
“The fate of US blacks, from the time of Jefferson to that of Reagan and Clinton, trapped within four successive ‘peculiar institutions’, under a sociological spotlight. The origins of American racism and its outcomes in today’s hyperghetto and prison regimes.”
Ruth Wilson Gilmore: Race, prisons and war: scenes from the history of US violence (2009).
“The United States ranks first in military power, wealth, war-making, murder rates, and incarceration rates. At the time of this writing in the summer of 2008, one in one hundred US adults was locked in a cage, and an additional two per cent were under the direct supervision of the criminal justice system.” Only abstract online.
Vera Institute of Justice
Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons (June 2006).
“Vera established the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons in 2005 to identify and recommend solutions to the most serious challenges facing America’s jails and prisons. The commission was co-chaired by former United States Attorney General Nicholas de B. Katzenbach and the Honorable John Gibbons.”
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia