Artikler og sites på dansk

 Web sites / Collections of articles in English

 Articles in English (incl. Chavez’ UN speech)


 Appendix: On Simon Bolivar

See also:

 Linkboxen Hugo Chávez (1954-2013) – links og nekrologer (Modkraft Biblioteket)

 Hugo Chávez (

 History of Venezuela (1999–present) (

 Bolivarian Revolution (

Against the Current

 Venezuela: Voices on the struggle (No.148, September/October 2010)
“In mid-June 2010, Jeffery R. Webber and Susan Spronk interviewed three revolutionary socialist activists in Venezuela to discuss their views on the contradictions and prospects of the Bolivarian process.” The article in Danish: Revolutionens udfordringer (Socialistisk Information, 3. oktober 2010)

 Jeffery R. Webber: Where Is Venezuela going? (No.144, January/February 2010). Review of Steve Ellner, Rethinking Venezuelan Politics: Class, Conflict, and the Chávez Phenomenon (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008)
“Steve Ellner’s latest book is an important contribution to our understanding of Venezuela under Hugo Chávez.”

 Greg Albo: The meaning of Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution (No.113, November/December 2004)

“The still to be conquered state power – and thus economic power – will be resolved neither by Chavez’s own personal role nor by appeals to community-based power structures alone.The social fracturing over state power has typically been the critical point in the class struggle of ‘political rupture’ where the old ways of doing things are no longer sustainable if the new ways are to be given life and allowed to develop their independent course.”

Anti-Capitalism : A Fifth International Special (2004)

 Hugo Chávez : a new leader for the anticapitalist movement?
“Chavez is neither an anticapitalist nor a consistent democrat. And for this reason his achievements and his own rule remain precarious.”


 Chavez, Venezuela, and the ‘Bolivarian revolution’ (18 November 2013)
“The radical reforms of Hugo Chavez are gains to be defended and a platform for further advance towards a revolutionary transformation of society argues Neil Faulkner.”

Fifth International

 Simon Hardy: Hugo Chavez : leading a socialist revolution? (Vol.2, No.2, Winter 2007)
“Since being re-elected as president in December 2006, Hugo Chávez has outlined his plans for a transition towards ‘socialism’, and for a new united socialist party. He has even claimed his support for Trotsky’s theory of permanent revolution. Simon Hardy takes a critical look at Chávez’ policies and and outlines the tasks of revolutionaries.”

 Analysis by region: Venezuela

Focus on the Global South

 Walden Bello: Military radicalism in Venezuela : how relevant for other developing countries?: how relevant for other developing countries? (3 March 2006)
“Venezuela is undergoing, if not a revolution, a process of radical change, and the military is right in the center of it. How could this been happening, many skeptics ask, when the military, especially in Latin America, is usually an agent of the status quo? Others, less skeptical, ask: is Venezuela the exception, or is it the wave of the future?”

Historical Materialism

 Review article by Donald V. Kingsbury (pdf) (Vol.18, No.1, 2010, p.151-163)
“In this review-essay, I consider the three most recent and comprehensive works on the foreign and domestic situations
in Venezuela in English: Eva Golinger’s Bush vs Chávez, Gregory Wilpert’s Changing Venezuela by Taking Power, and Steve Ellner’s Rethinking Venezuelan Politics.”

International Socialism

 Luke Stobart: Venezuela at the crossroads: Voices from inside the revolution (Issue 126, Spring 2010, p.19-28)
“While recently living and working in Venezuela, I interviewed some respected revolutionaries to discover their visions of the achievements and contradictions of the Bolivarian revolution and the tasks ahead for revolutionaries.”

 Mike Gonzalez: Chavez ten years on (Issue 121, Winter 2009, 49-64)
“Hugo Chavez is an extraordinary individual. But revolutions are the expression of collective liberation, of the moment when vast numbers of the excluded become the conscious shapers of their own destiny. How to achieve that, how to accelerate the redistribution of wealth and how to create the long promised democracy from below are the critical issues.”

 Interview: Venezuela – tensions within the process (Issue 116, Autumn 2007)
“Mike Gonzalez has written on Venezuela in this journal and elsewhere. Following his recent visit he answered questions about the latest developments.”

 The battle over Venezuela’s union (Issue 111, Summer 2006, p.18-22)
“The new union federation, formed by the workers’ organisations that resisted the bosses’ lockout of 2002-2003 (breaking with the scab CTV federation) met to hold its second congress in Caracas.”

 Venezuela: the popular movement and the government (Issue 110, Spring 2006, p.29-35)
“Roland Denis is active in the Venezuelan Movement of 13 April. Chris Harman and Maina van der Zwan interviewed him in Caracas at the end of January 2006. We began by asking him about the development of the movement at the base of society.”

 Dossier: Reform and revolution in Venezuela (Issue 109, Winter 2006, p.31-52)
“Here we present the views of some of the protagonists. On the one hand there are interviews with Chavez’s vice-president, Vincente Rangel, and with Marta Harnecker, often described as an important adviser to Chavez. On the other there is an interview with one of the country’s new left wing union leaders, a statement by certain social movements, and a text from two members of the recently formed Party of Revolution and Socialism.”

 Venezuela : inside the Bolivarian revolution (Issue 106, Spring 2005, p.135-143)
“Hugo Chávez has become a symbol of defiance to imperialism, drawing enthusiastic crowds in places as far apart as Porto Alegre and Calcutta. But what really is happening on the ground in Venezuela? Roland Denis, a Venezuelan revolutionary and former deputy minister, tells of some of the contradictions in the’Bolivarian’ process.”

 Mike Gonzalez: Venezuela : many steps to come (Issue 104, Autumn 2004, p.65-94)
“Venezuela’s upper classes have tried three times to overthrow the government of Hugo Chávez. On each occasion mobilizations of the country’s lower classes defeated their schemes. Mike Gonzalez looks at where Chávez came from, what his movement represents and the mobilisations in support of it. He argues that the reforms made so far can only be defended by further, revolutionary, developments.”

International Socialist Review

 Lee Sustar: Where is Venezuela going? (Issue 54, July–August 2007)
“This article … will (1) analyze the rise of Chávez within the context of Venezuelan history and politics; (2) examine the government’s economic, social, and political policies; (3) evaluate the Venezuelan revolutionary process from the standpoint of classical Marxist theory; and (4) outline a strategic approach towards the Chávez phenomenon for those committed to anti-imperialist and revolutionary socialist politics.”

 Trade unions and socialism in Venezuela (Issue 54, July–August 2007)
“The following interview was conducted with Orlando Chirino, national organizer of Venezuela’s National Workers’ Union (UNT) federation and leader of C-CURA (the United Autonomous Revolutionary Class Current) within the UNT. The interview was conducted after President Hugo Chávez proposed the formation of a new unified Venezuelan Socialist Party (PSUV).”

 Américo Tabata: An unconscious socialist revolution (Issue 46, March–April 2006)
“Américo Tabata is a member of the national committee of the Party of Revolution and Socialism (PRS) in Venezuela. He is an activist in the trade-union movement and a regional leader of the National Workers Union (UNT).”

 Bridget Broderick: Venezuela : another bosses’ strike (Issue 27, January–February 2003)
“What the private mainstream media have failed to report is the significant mobilizations of thousands of workers, volunteers and Chávez supporters who have organized against the opposition’s shutdown of the economy.”

 Bridget Broderick: Venezuela : coup and countercoup (Issue 23, May-June 2002)
“The Bush administration applauded the April 12 ouster of elected President Hugo Chávez Frías in Venezuela as a victory for democracy. Chávez ‘provoked the crisis,’ said White House spokesman Ari Fleischer, because he called in the military to suppress a peaceful demonstration of the people. Clearly not all Venezuelans (or other Latin Americans) agreed with this interpretation of events – they recognized it for what it was, a coup. But with mass support from the poor and from middle-ranking military officers, Chávez returned to the presidential palace in less than 48 hours.”

International Viewpoint

 Voices from Venezuela (Issue 428, September 2010)
“In mid-June 2010, Jeffery R. Webber and Susan Spronk interviewed three revolutionary socialist activists in Venezuela to discuss their views on the contradictions and prospects of the Bolivarian process.”

 Roland Denis: The revolution seen from the left : Chavismo’s original sin (Issue 380, July-August 2006)
“Neither ‘Chavismo’ nor the ‘Bolivarian revolution’ are political phenomena originating from the traditional left, and this is their original sin. They emerged from revolt in the streets and uprisings in barracks, not the rational decision of a vanguard or a left political bloc directing a revolutionary process to victory. We are dealing then with a strange and extremely complex phenomenon, informed by the most libertarian and radical elements of society and the popular movement, now bearing the flags of anti-capitalism and socialism.”

Jacobin: reason in Revolt

 Steve Ellner: Setting the record straight on Venezuela (4 December 2015)
“The Bolivarian Revolution hasn’t been perfect, but it’s improved the lives of millions in the face of violent opposition.”

 George Ciccariello-Maher: Venezuelan Jacobins (13 March 2014)
“Only the Venezuelan sansculottes can save the Bolivarian Revolution.”

Monthly Review

 Michael A. Lebowitz: The only road is practice (Vol.60, No.2, June 2008)
“This talk was presented to members of communal councils, oil workers, and state legislators, among others, at the Legislative Assembly building in Barcelona, Venezuela on December 15, 2007, shortly after the defeat of the referendum on constitutional reform in Venezuela.”

 Michael A. Lebowitz: Venezuela : a good example of the bad left of Latin America (Vol.59, No.3, July-August 2007)
“How can we identify an attack on capitalism as such? Is an alternative to capitalism being built in the new left governments of Latin America?”

 Hugo Chavez on the failed coup (Vol.57, No.4, September 2005)

“Hugo Chávez interviewed by Marta Harnecker.”

 Marta Harnecker: After the referendum : Venezuela faces new challenges (Vol.56, No.6, November 2004)

“With President Hugo Chávez’s victory in the August 15 referendum, the Venezuelan opposition suffered the third great defeat in its struggle to end his government … A new stage of the Bolivarian revolutionary process has begun. The opposition has been defeated in this battle, but the war has not yet been won.”

Mother Jones

 Hugo Chavez and his Bolivarian revolution. Richard Gott interviewed by Julian Brookes (October 4, 2005)
“A veteran Latin America correspondent on the past, present, and possible future of Venezuela’s president.”

MR Zine

 Éric Toussaint: Venezuela: In transition towards socialism?: nationalization and workers’ control:
achievements and limitations (26.09.10)
“The struggle for workers’ control of company management is essential. Its outcome is decisive for the ongoing process in Venezuela.”

The Nation

 Forum on Venezuela (December 7, 2007)
“What forces drove the opposition to Chávez’s reforms? What does the referendum’s defeat mean for the future of the Bolivarian revolution? And what did the majority of the US press get wrong (or right) about the vote in Venezuela? Our forum contributors, representing a range of perspectives, tackle these and other questions.”

New Internationalist

 Theme: The Venezuelan Revolution (No.390, June 2006)
“The NI reports from a country where ordinary people are living through far from ordinary times.” See also Venezuela and the Bolivarian Revolution : The Facts

New Left Review

 Eduardo Galeano: Nothingland – or Venezuela? (Issue 29, September-October 2004)
“Reviled by Venezuela’s TV channels, survivor of a US-backed coup attempt and a two-month employers’ strike, Hugo Chávez has been given yet another popular mandate – to the ill-concealed dismay of the financial press. Eduardo Galeano’s miniature snapshot of a flourishing Latin American democracy.”

 Gregory Wilpert: Collision in Venezuela (Issue 21, May-June 2003)
“What has lain behind the massive social conflicts that have unfurled round the Chávez regime? The spurious and real reasons for the rampage of Venezuelan managers, media and middle class against the country’s elected President. Oil, land and urban rights as the stakes in a social war of colour and class.”

New Politics

 Jeffrey R. Webber and Susan Spronk: February traumas: The third insurrectionary moment of the Venezuelan right (February 25, 2014)
“For seasoned observers of Venezuelan politics, the events of the past week are a disheartening repetition of opposition-led resistance efforts that have yet again sought to undermine political stability in the country.”


 Ivan Briscoe: Venezuela: is Hugo Chávez in control? (9-08-2007)
“Ivan Briscoe plunges into the maelstrom of the ‘Bolivarian revolution’ and emerges with a forensic assesssment – both panoramic and ground-level – of a major political experiment.”

Permanent Revolution

 Stuart King: Chavez’s Bolivarian revolution – what type of socialism in the 21st century? (Issue 3, Winter 2006)
“Armed with a new mandate, President Hugo Chavez has promised to deepen his ‘socialist revolution’ in Venezuela. Stuart King argues that, while his social reforms have been radical, he has left the economy in the hands of the capitalists and multinationals.”

 Gregory Wilpert: Venezuela: An anti-capitalist government? + reply from Stuart King (Issue 4, Spring 2007)

Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century

 Mike Gonzalez: Second letter from Caracas (March 10, 2014)
“The issue is: What are the leaders of the Chavista process offering? … It is a moment to address, without rhetoric, the real problems that the majority of Venezuelans are facing, their causes and radical solutions.”

 Mike Gonzalez: Is Venezuela burning? A letter from Caracas (22 February 2014)
“Caracas is seeing an uprising of the middle classes and the rich. The working class neighbourhoods remain loyal to the government, but also deeply cynical about the extraordinary corruption of the heirs of Chavez.”

 Federico Fuentes replies to Mike Gonzalez’s ‘Is Venezuela burning?'(Links, February 26, 2014)

Socialism Today

 Tony Saunois: Venezuela after the death of Hugo Chávez (Issue 167, April 2013)
“After a long battle with cancer, Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez died on 5 March 2013. His radical, populist policies and anti-imperialism helped transform the political situation both domestically and on the international stage.”

 Alejandro Rojas: Venezuela: new phase, new dangers (Issue 134, Dec-Jan 2009)
“The coming to power of Hugo Chávez in 1998 represented an important positive change in the world situation. This was the first government which did not embrace the ruthless neo-liberalism pushed by every ruling elite in the 1980s and 1990s. It enacted popular reforms, enthusiastically supported by workers in Venezuela … But there are ominous signs that creeping bureaucracy and repression are taking hold.”

Socialist Project/The Bullet

 The path for Venezuela cannot be Neoliberalism or Stalinism. Interview with Edgardo Lander (April 21, 2011)
“The Venezuelan process is caught between a fundamental contradiction: popular demands for democratic participation against tendencies toward hierarchical decision-making and concentration of power.”

Socialist Review

 Mike Gonzalez: Shaping the future in Venezuela (October 2007)
“As town square debates on Hugo Chavez’s constitutional amendments rage in Venezuela, Mike Gonzalez considers whether they will deepen democracy or further centralise power.”

 Michael Lebowitz: Venezuela : the struggle after the vote (December 2006)
“In the latest test for President Hugo Chavez, Venezuelans are voting in a presidential election that will decide the future of the country’s radical reforming government. Michael Lebowitz talks to SR about the nature of the ‘Bolivarian Revolution’.”

 ‘Workers control in Venezuela cannot be implemented by decree (December 2006)
“Steve Mather talks to Venezuelan workers and activists who are attempting to shape the unfolding revolutionary process and looks at those who are determined to stop them.”

 Chris Harman: Revolution in the revolution (February 2006)
“For the last four years Venezuela has been the political centre of the radicalisation of Latin America. Now those who started a revolutionary process are debating how to take the process further. Chris Harman reports from Caracas.”

Socialist Studies

 Jeffery R. Webber: Venezuela under Chávez: The prospects and limitations of twenty-first century socialism, 1999-2009 (Vol.6, No.1, Spring 2010, p.11-44)
“This article takes stock of major developments in the political economy of contemporary Venezuela after ten years under Hugo Chávez. It is argued that the Bolivarian process has done a great deal to rejuvenate the international critique of neoliberalism and to bring discussion of socialism back on the agenda of the Left. At the same time, there has been no socialist revolution in Venezuela, and Chavismo is ridden with profound and abiding contradictions.”

Socialist Worker (UK)

 Which way now in Latin America? (Issue 2213, 7 August 2010)
“Mike Gonzalez looks at the fate of the Bolivarian revolutions.”

 Venezuela: revolution stalled (Issue 2170, 26 September 2009)
“The election of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela gave hope to millions who want a better world. Mike Gonzalez looks at what has been achieved and where the country is heading.”

 Defeat on constitutional reforms: is it all over for Hugo Chavez? (Issue 2080, 8 December 2007)
“Mike Gonzalez reports from Venezuela on the reasons behind the recent vote against president Hugo Chavez’s constitutional reforms.”

 Questions for the Venezuelan revolution (Issue 2060, 21 July 2007)
“Mike Gonzalez spoke to Marco Antonio García, a member of the UNT trade union federation, about workers’ struggle and the fight for socialism in the 21st century.”

 Chris Harman: Venezuela, Hugo Chavez and permanent revolution (Issue 2035, 27 January 2007)
“Chavez is talking of ‘permanent revolution’ in Venezuela. But, argues Chris Harman, there is a fight for the future of the revolution and for change from below.”

 Chavez and the Venezuelian Revolution (Issue 976, 12 November 2005)
“Two award winning writers Hugh O’Shaughnessy and Michael Lebowitz look at Hugo Chavez and the revolt in Latin America.”

 Chávez and the Arab dictators. By Lance Selfa (May 17, 2011)
“Venezuela’s Hugo Chávez is respected as a left opponent of U.S. imperialism – but he is lending support to Middle East despots who are trying to suppress popular uprisings.”

 Chávez’s referendum victory (February 25, 2009)
“Chris Carlson, a journalist formerly based in Venezuela, looks at the results of the country’s referendum on presidential term limits in the context of a worsening economy.”

Solidarity (UK)

 Paul Hampton: Bonapartism or social democracy in Venezuela? (1 January, 2006)
“The substance of my disagreement with Nick Rogers over Venezuela is that I characterise the Chávez government as Bonapartist, whereas he believes it is social democratic. My view leads to independent working class politics – Rogers’ leads to its dissolution.”

 Paul Hampton: Bonapartism in Venezuela (3/83, 03 November 2005)
“For all the rhetoric against neoliberalism and about ‘twenty first century socialism’, Chávez has established a Bonapartist form of rule and set about sinking roots in Venezuelan society. This process is unfinished – unlike similar Latin American populists Chávez does not have fully institutionalised party or structures such as dependent trade unions to prop up his role. But he continues to rule in favour of capital – mainly Venezuelan national capital without being completely hostile to multinational capital.”

Solidarity (US)

 Venezuela: the Referendum and the Revolution (December 2007)
“The following contributions reflect a partial cross-section of the rich and complex discussion taking place in the Venezuelan and international left just before and immediately after the narrow defeat of the Constitutional referendum.”

Truthdig : Drilling Beneath the Headlines

 The big blowup over Venezuela
A Dig led by Marc Cooper (December 14, 2005)
“What’s all the fuss over Hugo Chavez? Marc Cooper examines the mercurial leader and his contentious relations with the Bush administration.”

 Gilles d’Aymery: Marc Cooper’s progressive’ rhetoric (February 13, 2006)
“In 4,000-plus digging words, Mr. Cooper goes about the examination of whether Mr. Chávez is a genuine leader walking the socialist path for the betterment of the Venezuelan people or a populist authoritarian who’s consolidating his power on the model of the dictator, Fidel Castro, or Juan Peron.”

The Unrepentant Marxist

 Hugo Chavez, Monthly Review, and the Syrian torture state. By Louis Proyect (May 26, 2011)
“The Venezuela Foreign Ministry issued a statement on Syria that appears on MRZine today. All of it is garbage but this is particularly offensive.”
See also the linkbox: Opstanden i Libyen: Venstrefløjen og Gaddafi (

 Jake Johnston and Sara Kozameh: Venezuelan economic and social performance under Hugo Chávez, in graphs (March 10, 2013)
“Below is a series of graphs that illustrate the economic and social changes that have taken place in Venezuela during this time period [after 14 years in office].”

 Chris Carlson: What the statistics tell us about Venezuela in the Chavez era (November 30, 2012)
“As the statistics show, the reality in Venezuela is far from the picture painted by the media in recent years. The nation’s poor have made important gains, and have significantly improved their standard of living. The social changes have been so rapid, in fact, that despite impressive increases in local production, the national economy has not been capable of meeting the growing demand.”

 Mark Weisbrot, Rebecca Ray and Luis Sandoval: The Chávez administration at 10 years: the economy and social indicators (February 6, 2009)
“This paper looks at some of the most important economic and social indicators during the 10 years of the Chávez administration in Venezuela, as well as the current economic expansion. It also looks at the current situation and challenges.”

 Gregory Wilpert: The meaning of 21st century socialism for Venezuela (July 11th 2006)
“In what appeared to be a surprise to almost everyone, on January 30, 2005, in a speech to the 5th World Social Forum, President Hugo Chavez announced that he supported the creation of socialism of the 21st century in Venezuela … Given this rather vague explanation and the concrete policies the Chavez government has pursued in the past seven years, is Venezuela really heading towards something that could be called ‘Socialism of the 21st century’?”

Weekly Worker

 Chávez strengthens his grip (Issue 759, March 5, 2009)
“After last month’s referendum working class power is as far away as ever, writes Nick Rogers.”

 Chávez suffers major constitutional setback (Issue 701, Dcember 13, 2007)
“While the defeat of the Venezuelan referendum has re-energised the right, Chávez’s constitutional proposals were, despite his claims to the contrary, not designed to empower workers, writes Nick Rogers.”

 All power to Chávez? (Issue 684, August 2, 2007)
“Nick Rogers analyses the sharpening contradictions within the process known as the ‘Bolivarian revolution’.”

 Chávez landslide (Issue 652, December 7, 2006)
“After Chávez’s victory in the presidential election, Venezuela is at the crossroads, writes Nick Rogers. The working class must assert its political independence.”

 Take control of the Bolivarian revolution (Issue 607, January 12, 2006)
“Nick Rogers disputes Paul Hampton’s assertion that the Chávez regime is Bonapartist and calls for a radical transfer of power to the working class.”

 Bonapartism or social democracy? (Issue 606, January 5, 2006)
“Paul Hampton of the Alliance for Workers’ Liberty replies to Nick Rogers and upholds what he calls ‘independent working class politics’.”

 Chavez and the AWL (Issue 605, December 15 2005)
“Nick Rogers replies to Paul Hampton (Letters, December 8) from the Alliance of Workers’ Liberty.”

 Working class project for Spanish America (Issue 603, December 1, 2005)
“Nick Rogers looks at the contradictions in the Bolivarian revolution and calls for the building of workers’ unity across the continent to defend and extend the gains won in Venezuela.”

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Bolivarian Revolution

 Hugo Chávez
Both articles with a lot of References.

Workers’ Liberty

 Theme: Mexico and Venezuela (Vol.3, No.10, March 2007)
“What Trotsky on Mexico can tell us about Venezuela and Chavez … Like Chávez, Cárdenas undertook radical nationalisations, turned over industries to workers’ administration and redistributed land … Leon Trotsky lived in Mexico and observed first-hand the Cárdenas’ government [1934-40] and its relationship to Mexican workers. Trotsky’s analysis is rich with lessons. Looking at his assessment can help anchor our own analysis of Venezuela today.”


 Michael Albert: Which way Venezuela? ( July 24, 2008)
“Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution is exciting and exemplary, yet few people know much about where Venezuela is headed. Misrepresentations abound. Data is limited and people interpret it in quite contrary ways. Information deficit plus skewed interpretations cause many people who ought to support the Bolivarian Revolution to instead doubt or even reject it. Useful lessons from Venezuela go largely unreported and thus have less than their widest possible effect.”

 Joe Grim Feinberg: The Bolivarian Revolution : beyond the opposition, beyond Chavez? (January 02, 2006)

“The paradoxes of the Bolivarian Revolution are numerous. It is a revolution of self-organization, but symbolized by a single leader at the head of a powerful state. It is a revolution of direct democracy and popular participation, but marked by electoral victories and individual personalities. It is a revolution toward ‘socialism’, but explicitly socialist organizations have played only a secondary role (though important) role in it. It is a revolution against a military coup, yet led by a former officer and aided by the work of the army … It is, I think, a real revolution, but a really slow one.”


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