Poster for the film
Poster for the film "Land and Freedom" directed by Ken Loach.

“Land and Freedom” er fra 1995, og handler om den arbejdsløse engelske arbejder og medlem af Communist Party of Great Britain, David Carr, der beslutter at kæmpe for den republikanske side i den spanske borgerkrig i en sammenslutning socialister, kommunister og anarkister. Filmen blev instrueret af Ken Loach og manuskriptet er skrevet af Jim Allen.


 

Indhold

Forord

Om filmen

Anmeldelser på dansk

Anmeldelser på engelsk

Interviews med instruktør Ken Loach

Andre film om Den Spanske Borgerkrig


Forord

Landandfreedom_1.jpgDen spanske borgerkrig er igen blevet aktuel, ikke mindst fordi filmen Land and Freedom, instrueret af Ken Loach, manuskript af Jim Allen, havde dansk premiere sidst i oktober 1995.
Da den fascistiske general Franco i juli 1936 forsøgte at tage magten ved et militærkup imod den folkevalgte folkefronts-regering, svarede den spanske arbejderklasse igen med at overtage kontrollen over fabrikkerne og jage godsejerne fra deres jord. Modstanden mod fascismen satte spørgsmålet om, hvem der skal kontrollere samfundet på dagsordenen. Borgerkrigen kunne have udviklet sig til en succesrig socialistisk revolution, men arbejdernes oprør blev smadret, bl.a. ved hjælp af det stalinistiske kommunistparti.
Læren af den spanske borgerkrig er vigtig – også i dag. Der er i dag mange unge, der ikke kender den klassiske venstrefløjs holdninger til den spanske borgerkrig, – holdninger, der viser, hvad de mener med socialisme, og hvordan man opnår det.
Derfor har vi lavet dette repræsentative udvalg af artikler fra tidsskrifter på Tidsskriftscentret.
Emnelisten blev oprindelige lavet som en pjece i december 1995, og er her i en kraftig revideret online-udgave.

Bjarne A. Frandsen og Jørgen Lund
September 2005, revideret juli 2011 + april 2015.

 

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

Om filmen

Land & Freedom, the Movie
Omfattende site med “Interviews, reviews and video clips.”

Internet Movie Data Base

Land and Freedom (1995).
Data om filmen + External reviews.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Land and Freedom


 

Anmeldelser på dansk (og svensk)

Arbejderen

Stor interesse for den spanske borgerkrig. Af Svend Tarp (12. december 1995, s.13).
Om et Villy Fuglsang-møde med folkefronts-kritik af filmen.

Med livet som indsats for fred og demokrati. Af Marius Hansen, Svend Larsen og Karl Christensen (nr. 209, 2. november 1995, s.13).
“Filmen ‘Land and Freedom’ nedgør de manges enhed i kampen mod fascismen i Spanien og sætter i stedet spot på splittelse og ekstremisme.”

Arbejderhistorie

Land and Freedom: en troværdig film om den spanske borgerkrig og revolution (pdf). Af Carsten Jørgensen (nr. 1, 1996, s.68-72).
“Filmen blev i det meste af pressen modtaget som et mesterværk, hvilket er berettiget. Der er ikke nogen grund til at gentage en vurdering af dens filmiske kvalitet, men derimod anskue filmen fra en anden vinkel – den historiske vinkel.” + Kommentar af Karl Christensen (pdf) (nr. 2, 1996, s. 72).

Autonomi

Land and Freedom: revolution og kontrarevolution i Spanien (nr. 34, 1995, s.72-77).
“Filmen gengiver det store drama i den Spanske Borgerkrig, der så fatalt bidrog til nederlaget for et ellers storslået revolutionært samfunds-eksperiment.”

Information

Den forrådte revolution. Af Morten Piil (27. oktober 1995).
“Der er en mægtig appel i Ken Loach’ nye mesterværk: politik handler om dit liv her og nu. Så gør noget!”

Kommunist

Total fordrejet billede af den spanske borgerkrig. Af Tom Rehrer (nr. 18, 11. november 1995, s.5).
“Filmen ‘Land and Freedom’ burde forbydes for folk uden kendskab til kampen imod Franco-fascismen.”

Marxistarkiv.se

Filmen Land och frihet: recensioner och debatt i spansk press (pdf) (17. september 2015, 18 s.).
“Ken Loachs film om spanska inbördeskriget blev mycket omdebatterad, även i Sverige. Av särskilt intresse är givetvis hur den mottogs i Spanien.”

Land och frihet: recensioner och debatt (pdf) (23. april 2015, 40 s.).
“De tidskrifter som vi hämtat texterna från är Offensiv, Norrskensflamman, Proletären, Internationalen och FIB/Kulturfront.”

Den Røde Tråd

Jorden og friheden. Af Tine Fasmer (nr. 37, 27. oktober-2. november 1995, s.9).
“Et område er erobret. Skal jorden så kollektiveres, eller er det bedre ar vente med at krænke borgerskabets ejendomsret, til den fælles fjende er slået?”

Dansk spaniensfrivillig: kun et hjørne af krigen. Af Tine Fasmer (nr. 37, 27. oktober-2. november 1995, s.8.). Interview med Karl Christensen.
“Karl Christensen rejste til Spanien i decmber 1936, ikke for at kæmpe for revolution, men for at forsvare Folkefrontsregeringen …”

Socialisten

Land and Freedom: mesterværk om Spanien 1936. Af Lena Hanno (nr. 25, forår 1996, s.13).
“Hvornår så du sidst en film, der taler om stalinismen (ikke kommunismen eller socialismen), når det er lige det, der er spørgsmålet? Som levendegør komplicerede komplicerede politiske teorier?”

Socialistisk Arbejderavis

‘Der var en tro på revolutionen’. Af Jørgen Lund (nr. 122, 2.-15. november 1995, s.6) + debat med Karl Christensen (nr. 124, 30. november-13. december 1995, s.2).
“‘Land and Freedom’ er den bedste film i lang tid. Og den bedste film nogensinde om den revolution, der udviklede sig i borgerkrigen mod Franco’s fascister. Jørgen Lund har set på den historiske baggrund for filmen.”

En film for socialister. Af Martin Johansen (nr. 124, 30. november 1995, s.5).
“Filmen ‘Land and Freedom’ om den spanske borgerkrig er måske årtiets vigtigste film for alle, der slås for en bedre verden.”

Socialistisk Information

Spanien i krig og revolution. Af Pierre Sylvian (nr. 89, 1995, s.24-25).
“Ken Loach har lavet en film, der er lige så meget en politisk begivenhed som en biografnyhed. Hvordan kan man tage tråden op fra den revolutionære historie, som stalinismen nedbrød? I denne artikel præsenteres det revolutionære parti POUM og dets mangeårige formand, Wilebaldo Solano, interviewes.”

Weekendavisen

Den spanske jord. Af Bo Green Jensen (27. oktober 1995).
“Ken Loachs ‘Land and Freedom’ beviser, at man stadig kan lave politiske film, som bevæger uden at tale ned til publikum.”

Ken Loach's "Land & Freedom" on the Spanish Civil War, starring Ian Hart as a disillusioned Liverpudlian who joins the fight against fascism and Franco
Ken Loach’s “Land & Freedom” on the Spanish Civil War, starring Ian Hart as a disillusioned Liverpudlian who joins the fight against fascism and Franco

 

Anmeldelser på engelsk

In Defence of Marxism

Introduction to The Spanish Revolution 1931-37. By Rob Sewell (15 November 1995).
“The release of the film Land and Freedom which highlights the treacherous role of the Stalinists during the civil war, has provoked a series of major articles in the Morning Star regurgitating all the old lies and arguments of the 1930s. They are attempting to cover up their disastrous role in 1936 and 1937. They are a blatant attempt to rewrite history.”

Monthly Review

Fascism and antifascism: yesterday and today. By Vicente Navarro (Vol. 47, No. 8, January 1996, p.14-29).
“Loach should be applauded for denouncing the enormous sectarianism of what has been called Stalinism … But it is importent to make several distinctions and clarifications that Loach fails to make in his criticism of the Spanish Communist Party and Stalin.” Only abstract online.

New Politics

Theme: The civil war in Spain: revolution and counterrevolution (No. 21, Summer 1996):

Land and Freedom, by Martine Vidal (p.71-73).
“In this era of triumphalist market economics, it is wonderful to see a film dealing with a revolution 60 years ago greeted with such emotion, even fervor.”

The hidden story of the revolution, by Andy Durgan (p.74-78).
“Ken Loach’s ‘Tierra y Libertad’ (Land and Freedom) continues, not only to attract enthusiastic audiences, but to be heaped with praise. Not many people have criticized the film publicly, but there is an undercurrent of disagreement which comes out privately.”

The meaning of defeat, by Pelai Pagés (p.79-83).
“Between May 3-8, 1937, there were a series of armed clashes in Barcelona and other Catalan towns between various social and political forces of the Catalan anti-fascist coalition. In Land and Freedom, Ken Loach has boldly and convincingly set out the events at the rear of the Catalan front which climaxed in the annihilation of the dissident Workers Party of Marxist Unification or POUM by the intervention of Stalinist Soviet Russia.”

New Statesman & Society

Viva la revolucion. By Paul Preston (16 February 1996, p.18-21).
“Despite many merits, Loach’s script seems oblivious of two central facts about the Spanish civil war: in its origins, it was a Spanish social war, and in its course and outcome, it was an episode in a greater European civil war that ended in 1945.” Se også kommentar fra Andy Durgan i Socialist Review nedenfor.

New Times

Land and Freedom and objective truth. By Rosemary Bechler (No. 90, 28 October 1995, p.5).
“Those present who fought as communist in the International Brigade in Spain, are for the most part frustrated by the film.”

Partisan. By Paul Preston (No. 88, 30 September 1995, p.9)
“Paul Preston finds Ken Loach’s film Land and Freedom moving, but historically flawed.”

The Raven

Rendering reality on film: art and the emotion racket. By Brian Bamford (Vol. 9, No. 1, Spring 1996, p.47-61).
“How can we value a film like Land and Freedom? There is the film we see and there is the film we did’t see. There was the film that Jim Allen and Ken Loach intended to put on the screen, and the one which force of circumstances and budget constraints allowed them to produce.”

Red Pepper

Comrades up in arms. By Sally Ramsden (No. 19, December 1995, p.28-29).
“Ken Loach’s Land and Freedom has provoked passionate argument on the left. Sally Ramsden examines the debate.”

Revolutionary History

Land and Freedom. By Wilebaldo Solano (Vol. 6, No. 2-3, Summer 1996, p.275-277).
“In this review, Wilebaldo Solano, the former General Secretary of the POUM, replies to the Spanish Stalinist leader Santiago Carrillo, and sees in Loach’s film the living image of the extermination of the Spanish Trotskyist by Stalin, culminating in the murder of Andreu Nin.”

Socialist Review

The Spanish revolution figthing on two fronts. By Andy Durgan (No. 199, July-August 1996, p.22-23).
“In his article commemoratin the 60th anniversary of the victory of the Popular Front govenment Paul Preston dismissed Ken Loach’s Land and Freedom as a ‘marginal if not perverse’ explanation of the causes of the Republic’s defeat. A few comments on Paul’s point of view need to be made.”

Weekly Worker

Behind the red flag. By Lawrence Parker (Issue 647, 2 November 2006).
“The question of Ken Loach’s aesthetic emerged at the recent Communist University and has also been a presence in discussions involving ‘the rotten elements’ group and part of the left. I think it is useful to begin to flesh out a critique by looking at Loach’s Land and freedom (1995).

What Next?

Land and Freedom. By Bob Pitt (1996).
“This article was written in response to an attack on Ken Loach’s film Land and Freedom by Morning Star journalist Jeff Sawtell (included here as an Appendix).”


 

Interviews med instruktør Ken Loach (og manuskriptforfatter Jim Allen)

Cineaste

The revolution betrayed: an interview with Ken Loach. By Richard Porton (Issue 1, Winter 1996; online at the Poetry Page, Randers Hf, VUC. DK).

Living Marxism

The Spanish connection. By Toby Banks (Issue 83, October 1995, p.38-39; online at the WayBackMachine).
“Director Ken Loach talked to Toby Banks about his latest film, Land and Freedom.”

New Times

Partisan. By Kevin Morgan (Issue 88, 30 September 1995, p.8).
“Kevin Morgan talks to controversial screenplay writer Jim Allen about the movie.”

The Progressive

‘Revolution is a pregnant cow’: a conversation with filmmaker Ken Loach. By Jane Slaughter (30 July 1996, p.30-31).
“Ken Loach gets it right. In all his movies, he displays a confident socialist and pro-working-class point of view.”

World Socialist Web Site

An interview with Jim Allen conducted in 1995 (11 August 1999).
“Immediately following the release of Land and Freedom, Barbara Slaughter and Vicky Short interviewed playwright and scriptwriter Jim Allen. He spoke of his views on the betrayal of the Spanish Revolution by the Stalinist bureaucracy and his long history of collaboration with the film’s director, Ken Loach.”


 

Andre film om Den Spanske Borgerkrig

Media Resources Center

Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Revolution and Civil War

Other film and videos on the Spanish Civil War

Wikipedia.org

List of war films and TV specials: Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

Category: Spanish Civil War films


 

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