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4. juli 2022
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Portrait of Ferdinand Freiligrath, 1851. Oil on canvas painted by Johann Peter Hasenclever (1810–1853). Collection: National Museums in Berlin. Current location: Alte Nationalgalerie. In 1890: given to Alte Nationalgalerie by Frau Ida Freiligrath, Witwe des Dichters, Cannstatt. Public Domain.


The city of Münster under siege by prince bishop Franz von Waldeck in 1534. The picture shows the first attack at Pentecost. The text below the image says: "A verzeychnung der Stat Munster with every opportunity / mauren / thüren / pinnacles / wading / closets / pasteyen / unnd geweren / watergreben. Also like that of irem Bischoff on the Friday before Pentecost / MD xxxiiii. Jars berennt / (and?) Zibben casual ringhweis .... to hand over / and afterwards ran to Sant Egidien evening at five locations / and were violently stormed. as some say / at three thousand! God ..." Colored woodcut with type printing from 1535 by Erhard Schoen (c. 1491–1542), German woodcut designer and painter. Collection: Westphalian State Museum for Art and Cultural History, Münster. Public Domain.


Lavater and Lessing Visit Moses Mendelssohn. Portrays an imagined meeting among Mendelsohn (1729-1786) and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781), and the Swiss theologian Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741-1801), at the residence of Moses Mendelssohn located at Spandauerstraße 68, Alt Berlin. Mendelssohn (on the left), wearing a red coat, and seated at a chess table in his library with Lavater. Lessing stands at the center behind the two. The scene refers to two foundational moments in the history of German-Jewish cultural interaction. The actual meetings between Mendelssohn and Lavater, which took place in 1763-64, were followed by the failed attempt on the part of the theologian to convince Mendelssohn to embrace Christianity. The well-known friendship between Mendelssohn and Lessing, one of the high points of the haskalah, or “Jewish Enlightenment,” came to be considered a paradigm of the possibility of a harmonious cohabitation between Germans and Jews. Painted in 1856 by Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (1800–1882), German painter. Collection: Judah L. Magnes Museum / The Magnes Collection of Jewish Art and Life, Californien. (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0).


The Staffelwalze, or Stepped Reckoner, a digital calculating machine invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz around 1672 and built around 1700. It was the first known calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. 67 cm (26 inches) long. Only two machines were made. Collection: Museum Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, Germany. Photo: Hajotthu. (CC BY-SA 3.0).


Immanuel Kant with friends, including Christian Jakob Kraus, Johann Georg Hamann, Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel and Karl Gottfried Hagen. Painted in 1892/1893 by Emil Doerstling (1859-1940), German painter. Public Domain.


The execution of Joseph Süß Oppenheimer on February 4th, 1738 in front of the Stuttgart city gates. "True illustration of the execution carried out on the Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer, born in the Palatinate, in the year 1738, February 4th, such as those carried out for frolocking the printed subjects outside Stuttgart, and he on the iron gallows, in an iron 6-shoe high Käffich has been woken up." Romanus Heid, excudit Augusta Vindelicorum [Print: Romanus Heid, Augsburg] Kupferstich by Lucas Conrad Pfandzelt (1716-1786), German painter, copyist, restorer, collector and businesman, and Jacob Gottlieb Thelot (1708-1760), German printmaker, engraver. Collection: Württembergische Landesbibliothek Stuttgart, graphic collections. Puvlic Domain.


Wilhelm Liebknecht, Photo: Redaktion, "Die Neue Welt", 1900. Public Domain.


Tiroler Landsturm 1809 oliemaleri af Joseph Anton Koch (1768–1839) circa 1820. Scene fra det tyrolske bondeoprør ledet af Andrea Hofer mod Fransk besættelse. Public Domain.


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