Foreword and Overview articles


 Web sites

 Books (or chapters) and pamphlets online

 Marina Ginesta (photo), Militant Girl

 Films and Posters


 Appendiks 1: On Capas photograph “Falling Soldier”

 Appendiks 2: Ken Loachs film Land and Freedom

 Appendiks 3: Andrés Nin & POUM

See also: Den spanske borgerkrig og revolution 1936-39 (Danish references)


(CNT (?) Militia in Spanish Civil War (Unknown source)

Books, pamphlets & chapters of books online

(In chronological order)

The Friends of Durruti Group: 1937-39
By Agustin Guillamon (1996; online at Spunk Library).
“Agustin Guillamón’s monograph on the Friends of Durruti Group affords readers of English the most comprehensive and thorough exploration and account of the history and ideas of that group.”
Review by Dave Esterson (Permanent Revolution, 25 February 2009).

To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936
By Murray Bookchin (1994; online at Spunk Library).
“These essays are less an analysis of the Spanish Revolution and Civil War of 1936-39 than an evocation of the greatest proletarian and peasant revolution to occur over the past two centuries.”

Trotsky. Vol. 4: The darker the night the brighter the star – 1927-1940
By Tony Cliff (1993; online at Marxists Internet Archive).
Chapter 11: Trotsky and the Spanish Revolution (page 235-290)
“Trotsky was absolutely convinced that the victory over fascism in the Spanish Civil War depended much less on military technique than on the politics followed by the anti-fascists.”

The Spanish Civil War: Anarchism in Action
By Eddie Conlon (1986/1993; online at The Struggle Site).
“An introduction to the role of anarchism in the Spanish Civil War / Revolution of 1936”. For a translation in Norwegian from 2009 (50 p.), see (pdf).

The Spanish Civil War in Euzkadi and Catalonia 1936-39
By Miguel Romero (1991; online at IIRE – The International Institute for Research and Education).
“Miguel Romero questions conventional history and tries to look at it from the point of view of the defeated and oppressed. This starting point makes it possible for him to show that the defeat of the revolutionaries in the republican camp (particularly in Catalonia in spring 1937) paved the way for Franco’s victory.”

The Comintern
By Duncan Hallas (1985; online at Marxists Internet Archive).
Chapter 7: The Terror and the People’s Front: The Spanish Revolution.
“Stalinism … destroyed the Spanish revolution.”

Collectives in the Spanish Revolution
By Gaston Leval (1975; online at
“Detailed account of worker-controlled agriculture, industry and public services in revolutionary Spain during the civil war.

The Anarchist Collectives: Workers’ Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936–1939
Ed. Sam Dolgoff (1974; online at The Anarchist Library)
“My purpose in this collection is to provide an introduction to this unique experience [in workers’ self-management].”

The Spanish Revolution
By Pierre Broué (online at, 1973, 66 p.).
“… our topic, the revolution, that is, the struggle of the Spanish workers and peasants for their rights and liberties, for the factories and the land, and finally, for political power.”

American Power and the New Mandarins
By Noam Chomsky (1967; online at Digital Text International)
Chapter: Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship
“Noam Chomsky’s analysis of the Spanish Revolution and his critique of liberal interpretations of it.”
The extensive, detailed footnotes has not been uploaded. They can be found in the print version.
In Danish: Objektivitet og liberal videnskab (Gyldendal 1970, s. 76-128 + Notes, s. 129-165).

Anarchism: From Theory to Practice
By Daniel Guerin (French ed. 1965, English ed. 1976; online at
Chapter 3c: Anarchism in the Spanish Revolution.
The Soviet mirage – The Anarchist tradition in Spain – Theory – An ‘apolitical’ revolution – Anarchists in government – Self-management in agriculture – Self-management in industry – Self-management undermined.

How the NKVD framed the POUM
By Jesús Hernández (1953; online at Marxists Internet Archive).
“This account of the POUM’s suppression in 1937 is taken from the memoirs of Jesús Hernández, published in 1953 in Mexico as Yo fuí un ministro de Stalin (I was a Minister of Stalin) and in a French version as La Grande Trahison (The Great Betrayal). At the time of the Civil War, Hernández was a leading figure in the Spanish Communist Party.” (Pamphlet, 2005).

Spain Betrayed: How the Popular Front Opened the Gates to Franco
By Mieczyslaw Bortenstein (1939; online at Marxists Internet Archive).
“This account was first published over the pseudonym of M Casanova as a pamphlet in the Le Tract collection (no 3) and in Quatrième Internationale, no 17, May 1939.”
See also Swedish edition at (pdf).

Revolution and Counterrevolution in Spain
By Felix Morrow (1938; online at Marxists Internet Archive).
“The text of the following book is that of the second edition of 1963 published by New Park Publications together with the introduction written at that date by the late Tom Kemp.”
See also Swedish edition at (pdf).

Review: Morrow on Spain. By Ernest Mandel (International, Vol.2, No.3, Summer 1974, p.40-42; online at Marxist Internet Archive).

Homage to Catalonia
By George Orwell (1938; online at
“Orwell’s personal account of the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. The first edition was published in 1938. Orwell was in Spain from December 1936 to June 1937.”
See also:

 Spilling the Spanish Beans (1937; online at

 Looking Back on the Spanish War (1942; online at

 Homage to Catalonia: the working class in the saddle (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, July 15, 2016).
“Colin Revolting revisits George Orwell’s masterpiece of revolutionary reportage.”

 Orwell and the Spanish Revolution, by John Newsinger (International Socialism, Issue 62, Spring 1994, p.71-90).
“George Orwell’s ‘Homage to Catalonia’ is quite simply one of the best books ever written about revolution. But it has always suffered attack from sections of the left-Stalinists then and some feminists today. John Newsinger looks at the history of the Spanish Revolution, Orwell’s politics and the reaction of his critics.”

 Homage to Catalonia (; Socialist Books Online) (incl. essays by Orwell on Spain).

Stalinism in Spain
By Katia Landau (1938; online at Marxists Internet Archive).
“This article first appeared as a pamphlet under the title Le Stalinisme en Espagne in Paris in 1938, and was republished in 1971 and 1986 as Le Stalinisme, Bourreua de la Revolution Espagnole, 1937-1938.” With preface by Alfred Rosmer.

The Tragedy of Spain
By Rudolf Rocker (1937; online at
“July 19th was the anniversary of the day on which a gang of militarist adventurers rose against the republican regime in Spain and, with the assistance of outside powers and foreign troops, plunged the country into a bloody war.”
Review by Felix Morrow: Anarchism in Spain (New International, January 1938).

See also:
Bookwatch: Civil war and revolution in Spain. By Andy Durgan (International Socialism, Issue 69, Winter 1995, p.109-121).
“… a comprehensive readers’ guide to one of the turning points of the 20th century.”

Spanish civil war 1936-39: reading guide (
“’s reading guide on the Spanish civil war and social revolution from 1936-1939 which, sparked by a military rising lead by right-wing General Franco, was arguably the most far-reaching revolution in history.”


Marina Ginesta , a member of the Catalan (JSU) Communist Youth, pictured in July 1936 on the terrace of the Hotel Colon, where a militia enlistment office was established. Photograph: Juan Guzmán/Agencia EFE/REX/Shutterstock (kilde: The Guardian)


 Marina Ginestà (

 Marina Ginesta, a 17-year-old communist militant, overlooking Barcelona during the Spanish Civil War, 1936 (Rare Historical Photos, December 1, 2013)

 Marina Ginesta: Socialist activist whose photograph became one of the most memorable images of the Spanish Civil War. By Alasdair Fotheringham (Independent, January 22, 2014)

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