A First Approximation / by Ian Birchall, April 2002.
[In print rev. and extended version: ‘Biblography of Cliff’s works’. pp. 560-603 in: Tony Cliff : A Marxist for His Time. By Ian Birchall, Bookmarks publications, 2011]
See also: Writing Socialist Biography: Some methodologcal problems – the biography of Tony Cliff. By Ian Birchall. Paper presented at the New Socialist Approaches to History seminar, Institute of Historical Research, October 10th 2005 (London Socialist Historians Group).
The compiler of this bibliograpy, Ian Birchall, to the right.
The bibliography is arranged in thirteen sections, as follows:
Books, pamphlets, prefaces, etc., articles in books, translations
Fourth International publications
Socialist Review – series one
International Socialism – series one
Labour Worker, Socialist Worker
Socialist Review – series two
International Socialism – series two
Internal Bulletins, circulars etc
Tony Cliff (1917-2000) will undoubtedly be remembered as one of the most important Marxists of the second half of the twentieth century. His development of the theory of state capitalism made an important contribution to one of the most important theoretical debates of the period, and was vindicated by the collapse of the Stalinist bloc which for so long exercised a huge attractive power on large sections of the left.
But Cliff was not simply a theoretician. For the last fifty years of his life he was deeply involved in the building and political orientation of an organisation – the Socialist Review Group (1950-62), which became the International Socialists [IS] (1962 76) and then the Socialist Workers Party [SWP] (1977 onwards).
The present bibliography aims to reflect the totality and the unity of Cliff’s work, by listing as many as possible of his writings, from scholarly studies to popular journalism. The 636 items listed here reveal the enormous range of topics to which he applied himself.
Until the establishment of the IS printshop in 1968 Cliff was obliged to write either for bourgeois publishers or, as he generally did, for the obscure and often short lived publications of the far left, produced with a technology which nowadays seems extraordinarily primitive. In 1964 Cliff became a printer himself, working stripped to the waist in a tiny shop in Islington.
I have listed as far as possible all of Cliff’s books, pamphlets and articles. Since article titles are often not self-explanatory, I have added short notes on the context and/or content. I have, however, kept these extremely brief and not attempted to add a political commentary.
I think it would be fair to say that Cliff was more impressive as a speaker than as a writer. It would obviously be impossible to list the many thousands of meetings he addressed over fifty years. I have, however, listed his Marxism meetings; apart from the earliest years, there should be tapes of almost all these.
In addition Cliff played a vital rÃ´le in the leading bodies of the organisation. In the 1969-74 period extensive minutes were kept of these meetings. I have tried to list Cliff’s major contributions to political and organisational questions, while omitting merely trivial and routine matters. This section is necessarily incomplete, as my own set of minutes has many gaps and I do not know of a more complete one. Some of Cliff’s 1973 membership reports were destroyed for security reasons at the time of the February 1974 election. In later years his contributions to conferences and national meetings were often reported in Socialist Worker, and again I have listed significant items.
Cliff suffered from no false modesty about the importance of his own rÃ´le; but his eye was always on the present rather than on posterity, and only a rather random selection of his manuscripts and other papers has survived, though we do have full or partial manuscripts of three unpublished books, abandoned when they ceased to be a political priority. Sadly only a few small fragments survive from his early years in Palestine. Cliff’s papers are to be deposited at Warwick University.
Cliff had a wide influence internationally, a fact reflected by the large number of translations of his books and articles. I have attempted to list translations, but this section is necessarily very incomplete. While some sections of the IS tendency gave me very useful information, others were unable to help. My ignorance of many of the languages in question meant I had to rely on a number of informants; this accounts for the inconsistencies in the presentation of bibliographical information.
Because of the many gaps remaining I have entitled this a ”˜first approximation’ (a title borrowed from the old IS journal). Since it is in electronic form it can be easily updated, and I should be most grateful to receive any information as to items omitted. In a few cases I have listed items on the basis of second-hand information without knowing where the originals may be located. These are marked [NOT SEEN] and I should again be grateful to hear from anyone who may possess any of these items.
In compiling this bibliography I used my own personal archives and consulted those of Alan Woodward; I also examined papers at Cliff’s home and consulted material in the British Library and the Socialist Platform Library. I am grateful to all who gave me assistance of any sort, and in particular to the following who provided information of various sorts: Edward Crawford, Duncan Hallas, Jim Higgins, Mike Jones, Ronnie Margulies, James Monaghan, Al Richardson, Chanie Rosenberg, Alan Woodward and comrades from SEK Greece, IS Holland and IS Norway.
Shortly before his death Cliff told me I was a ”˜bloody pedantic bastard’. I suspect this bibliography would have confirmed his worst fears. While studying his papers in his home I found myself under the severe scrutiny of Chanie Rosenberg’s wonderfully lifelike sculpture of Cliff, and I could hear the old man saying: ”˜You are wasting your time; go to a picket line’. I hope I have not wasted my time and that this bibliography will be of some service to those studying the history of the revolutionary left and of one of the most remarkable figures active within it.
The following abbreviations are used to indicate publications for which Cliff wrote frequently:
LW : Labour Worker (1962-68)
SW: Socialist Worker (1968- )
SR1: Socialist Review – first series 1950-62
SR2: Socialist Review – second series 1978-
IS1: International Socialism – first series 1960-1978
IS2: International Socialism – second series 1978-
The following indicate anthologies of Cliff’s works or of party writing. Where these appear in brackets after an item they indicate that the item was reproduced therein:
NWNM: Neither Washington nor Moscow 1982
W1: Cliff: Writings vol. 1 2001
W2: Cliff: Writings vol. 2 2002
ASR1: A Socialist Review (introduced by J Higgins) 1965
ITHOS: In the Heat of the Struggle (edited by Chris Harman) 1994
ASR2: A Socialist Review (edited by L German & R Hoveman) 1998
Where no author’s name is listed the item appeared under the name T Cliff or Tony Cliff. Where Cliff used one of his many pseudonyms, or wrote jointly with comrades, the authorship is indicated in square brackets before the title.
The Problem of the Middle East (Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq).
1946, 217 pp. (Marxists Internet Archive).
Unpublished manuscript (except Chapter 8) – first published in the Marxists’ Internet Archive, June 2011.
“… it is basically Cliff trying to apply the theory of permanent revolution to the Middle East.” (Birchall: Talkin’ ’bout..)
Ygael Gluckstein, Stalin’s Satellites in Europe
Allen & Unwin, London, 1952, 333 pp.
Stalinist Russia. A Marxist Analysis
Michael Kidron, London, 1955, xiii, 273 pp.
This is based on The Nature of Stalinist Russia (Internal Bulletin Revolutionary Communist Party June 1948: see section H) but (according to C Harman, Introduction to 1988 edition) differs ”˜mainly in terms of chapter order, but also by the addition of material referring to the split between Yugoslavia and Russia in 1948, and amendments to the section dealing with crisis in state capitalism’.
Russia: A Marxist Analysis
International Socialism, London, 1964, 384 pp.
Book I (pp. 17-191) is a reprint of Stalinist Russia. A Marxist Analysis (1955)
Book II (pp. 195-349) ”˜Russia after Stalin’ was published for the first time.
State Capitalism in Russia
Pluto Press, London, 1974, 309 pp.
Reprint of Stalinist Russia from 1955
State Capitalism in Russia
Bookmarks, London, 1988, 377 pp. ”˜Revolutionary classics.
Introduction and postscript by C Harman.
pp. 309-331: ”˜Appendix I – An examination of Trotsky’s definition of Russia as a degenerated workers’ state’ was chapter 7 in earlier versions.
pp. 333-53: The theory of bureaucratic collectivism: a critique [see section H].
Allen & Unwin, London, 1957, 438 pp.
Rosa Luxemburg: A Study [W1]
International Socialism, London, 1959, 96 pp.
(International Socialism, Nos 2-3)
Reprinted January 1968
Reissued April 1969 (International Socialism, London)
The 1969 edition is printed from a photocopy of the first edition, but two significant changes are made on pp. 53-4, reflecting Cliff’s changing views on the question of the revolutionary party. The two versions are published side by side in W1, p. 113.
Reissued July 1980 (Bookmarks London)
The 1980 edition follows the 1969 version, with a few purely stylistic changes (e.g. ”˜epigones’ become ”˜followers’.)
London Industrial Shop Stewards Defence Committee, Harrow Weald, 1966, 136 pp. [Tony Cliff & Ian Birchall]: France: The Struggle Goes On [W1]
Socialist Review Publishing Co., London, 1968, 80 pp.
International Socialism special
The Employers’ Offensive, Productivity Deals and how to fight them [W2]
Pluto Press, London, 1970, 234 pp.
The Crisis: Social Contract or Socialism
London, Pluto Press for Socialist Worker, 1975, 192 pp.
Lenin Vol. 1: Building the Party
Pluto Press, London, 1975, 398 pp.
Lenin Vol. 2: All Power to the Soviets
Pluto Press, London, 1976, 412 pp.
Lenin Vol. 3: Revolution Besieged
Pluto Press, London, 1978 , x + 230 pp.
Lenin Vol. 4: The Bolsheviks and World Communism
Pluto Press, London, 1979, xi + 251 pp.
Lenin 1893-1914: Building the Party
Bookmarks, London 1986, 398 pp.
Reprint of Pluto 1975.
Lenin All Power to the Soviets 1914-1917
Bookmarks, London 1985, 412 pp.
Reprint of Pluto 1976.
Lenin: Revolution Besieged 1917-1923
Bookmarks, London 1986, xvi + 480 pp.
Reprint of Pluto 1978 & 1979.
Class Struggle and Women’s Liberation, 1640 to today
Bookmarks, London, 1984, 271 pp.
Bookmarks, London, 1986, 320 pp. [Tony Cliff & Donny Gluckstein]: The Labour Party, A Marxist History
Bookmarks, London, 1988, 427 pp.
Second edition, with new chapter on Blair and New Labour
Bookmarks, London, 1997
Trotsky Vol. 1: Towards October 1879-1917
Bookmarks, London, 1989, 314 pp.
Trotsky Vol. 2: The Sword of the Revolution 1917-1923
Bookmarks, London, 1990, 309 pp.
Trotsky Vol. 3: Fighting the Rising Stalinist Bureaucracy 1923-1927
Bookmarks, London, 1991, 306 pp.
Trotsky Vol. 4: The darker the Night, the Brighter the Star 1927-1940
Bookmarks, London, 1993, 427 pp.
Trotskyism after Trotsky, the origins of the International Socialists
Bookmarks, London, 1999, 95 pp.
A World to Win: Life of a Revolutionary
Bookmarks, London, 2000, 247 pp.
Marxism at the Millennium
Bookmarks, London, 2000, 86 pp.
Collection of articles written for IS tendency publications in Germany and Turkey.
Middle East at the Cross Roads
Workers International News Pamphlet, London, 1946, 24 pp.
Dated Jerusalem, 12 November 1945
Compilation of three articles which appeared in Workers International News December 1945, January & February 1946, also in Fourth International December 1945, January & February 1946 [see section B]
Russia from Stalin to Khrushchev
Published by Michael Kidron, London, 24 pp.
First impression: April 1956
Second impression: May 1956
Analyses destalinisation before ”˜secret speech’; concludes ”˜Stalin is dead, Stalinism lives’.
The Struggle in the Middle East [shortened version in W1]
International Socialism pamphlet, London, no date , 4 pp. newspaper format.
Analysis of situation after Six Day War in June 1967
IS Internal Bulletin December 1969 reports that Cambridge IS have produced a pamphlet containing ”˜Permanent Revolution’ [IS1 12] and Kidron’s Imperialism. [NOT SEEN]
Permanent Revolution, a re-examination [IS1 12]
Bookmarks for the SWP, London, 1983, 21 pp.
Deflected Permanent Revolution,
Socialist Workers Party, 1990, 28 pp.
8 pp. 1975
Marxism and the Collectivisation of Agriculture
Socialists Unlimited, London, 1980, 36 pp.
International Socialism reprint No. 1
Revolution and counter-revolution: lessons for Indonesia
21 pp, from IS2 80
Produced for Indonesia: outer cover reads : ”˜The Internet – Guidelines for Helplines’
Paul Frölich, Rosa Luxemburg
Pluto Press, London, 1972 , reissued 1981
pp. ix-xi: Introduction
Argues Luxemburg’s critique of reformism superior to Lenin’s.
The Bolsheviks and the October Revolution
Minutes of the Central Committee of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) August 1917-February 1918
Pluto Press, London, 1974
pp. 253-323: Notes prepared by Institute of Marxism-Leninism for second Russian edition, Moscow, 1958 plus in different typeface, additional notes by T Cliff, correcting Stalinist distortions.
Bookmarks, London, 1987
pp. 7-12: Workers’ Revolution and Beyond
Introduction to reprints of articles by Harman and Binns.
AY Badayev: Bolsheviks in the Tsarist Duma
Bookmarks, London, 1987
pp. 7-15: Introduction by Tony Cliff
Partly polemic against Eric Heffer: The Class Struggle in Parliament (1973)
Leon Trotsky: The History of the Russian Revolution
Pluto, London, 1997
Articles in Books
Tariq Ali (ed.): New Revolutionaries
Peter Owen, London, 1969
pp. 219-37: The Struggle in the Middle East
1967 pamphlet listed above
N Harris & J Palmer [eds.], World Crisis
Hutchinson, London, 1971
pp. 225-50: The Class Struggle in Britain [NWNM]
R Kuper (ed.) The Fourth International, Stalinism and the Origins of the International Socialists – Some Documents
Pluto, London, 1971
pp. 14-64: On the class nature of the people’s democracies [NWNM]
pp. 79-94: The theory of bureaucratic collectivism – a critique [IS1 32 & NWNM]
Both were originally internal documents [see section H] [Tony Cliff, Duncan Hallas, Chris Harman and Leon Trotsky] Party and Class
Pluto Press for the International Socialists, London, 1971
pp. 26-46 Trotsky on Substitutionism (from IS1 2)
David Widgery: The Left in Britain 1956-68
Peregrine, Harmondsworth, 1976
pp. 92-97: Revolutionary Traditions
Transcript of talk given to IS aggregate at Wortley Hall, Sheffield, 22 April 1967.
pp. 437-47: Nothing So Romantic
From Idiot International No 6, June 1970 [see section I].
Socialist Worker, Fighting to Change the World
SWP, London, 2002
pp. 11-19: Pravda – the legal newspaper
Edited version of chapter 19 from Lenin 1, Building the Party (1975)
pp. v-xii: Introduction by Tony Cliff
A World to Win (p 26) reports that in Palestine Cliff translated two books into Hebrew, Lewis Corey, The Decline of American Capitalism, and a book by Fritz Sternberg. The former was for the Hashomer Hatzair publishing house, but Corey blocked publication. [NOT SEEN]
NB The British Library catalogue lists the pamphlet Steve Berry: The Prevention of Terrorism Act (1977) under Cliff’s name as ”˜personal author’. This is a mistake; there is no evidence of any involvement by Cliff.
October 1938: pp. 311-12 [W1]
L Rock : British Policy in Palestine
November 1938: pp. 335-7 [W1]
L Rock : The Jewish-Arab Conflict
Argues for struggle against Zionism, Arab national exclusivism and imperialism.
(January 1939, p 31: letter from Paul Koston (Cape Town) accusing Rock of being insufficiently critical of Zionism; February 1939, pp. 41-44: article from The Spark (Cape Town) urging support for Arabs against Zionism.)
June 1939, pp. 169-73 [W1]
L Rock: Class Politics in Palestine
Response to article from The Spark.
(October 1939, pp. 313-14: further article from The Spark responding to Rock.)
Fourth International (SWP US)
December 1945, pp. 361-66 [NWNM]
The Middle East at the Crossroads: Part I
January 1946, pp. 10-13
The Middle East at the Crossroads: Part II
February 1946, pp. 50-53
The Middle East at the Crossroads: Part III
All three parts translated by R. Bod.
These three articles also appeared in Workers International News December 1945, January & February 1946, then as a pamphlet Middle East at the Cross Roads [1946 – see section A]
September 1946: pp. 282-84
A New British Provocation in Palestine
Common and antagonistic interests of imperialism and Zionism.
April 1947: pp 114-17
Some Features of Capitalist Economy in the Colonies
Mainly on role of banks in Egypt.
June 1947, pp. 190-91
The World Struggle for Oil
Reprinted from Socialist Appeal January 1947
Workers International News
December 1945: pp. 72-79
Imperialism in the Middle East – I
January 1946, pp. 106-13
Imperialism in the Middle East – II
February-March 1946, pp. 153-60
Imperialism in the Middle East – III
On Stalinism; all three translated by R. Bod.
These three articles also appeared in Fourth International December 1945, January & February 1946, then as a pamphlet Middle East at the Cross Roads [1946 – see section A]
January-February 1947: pp. 27-32
Conflict in India
Muslims not a nation; need for Hindu-Muslim unity
(There are two versions of this issue, one dated January-February 1947, one dated February 1947; contents are identical.)
October 1947 (issue 7/3) pp. 12-21
The United States in World Economy: The Basis of the Marshall Plan
This is advertised as the first of a series of three articles; however, issue 7/4 is missing from the Socialist Platform archive; issue 7/5 (August 1948) contains nothing by Cliff and is mainly concerned with Stalin-Tito split.
Mid-May 1946: p. 3
Palestine Strike Arabs and Jews Unite
Cliff described as ”˜Our Middle east Correspondent’.
December 1946: p. 3
Are the Terrorists Anti-Imperialist?
Argues Stern gang, Irgun etc. opposed to interests of Jews and Arabs alike.
January 1947: pp. 1-4
World Struggle for Oil.
February 1947, pp. 3-4
The Bureaucrats in Industry
This and the next five items part of a series called :’What is Happening in Stalinist Russia?’
Mid-February 1947: pp. 3-4
Piece Work in Russia
April 1947: pp. 3-4
Punishments and Fines in USSR
Mid-April 1947: pp. 3-4
Housing in Russia
Mid-May 1947: pp. 1-4
Daily Worker Defends Inequalities in Russia
Response to Daily Worker articles of 8, 9 May 1947.
Mid-July 1947: pp. 3-4
Women in the USSR
”˜The degree of humanity’s progress is measured by the condition of women.’