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Den 11. september 1973: Militærjunta under ledelse af general Pinochet – og støttet af USA – vælter den socialistiske præsident Allende i Chile, og myrder ham. En blodig undertrykkelse starter. Kuppet får stor betydning for venstrefløjen i Europas strategiske diskussioner, bl.a. for den såkaldte eurokommunisme.
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Indhold:/Content:


På dansk (og nordisk) 1973chile2.jpg

Allende Gossen, Salvador (Leksikon.org)

Chile (Leksikon.org). 19 printsider; om Allende-tiden + kuppet 4 sider.

Artikler:

Tidsdoku. Chiles 11. september: Historien om et blodigt militærkup. Af Alfred Lang (Autonom Infoservice, 10. september 2018/2003; opdateret 11. september 2019).
“For 33 år siden borede datoen 11. september sig for første gang dybt ind i verdensoffentligheden. Den dag i 1973 gennemførte Chiles militær et blodigt kup, der blev støttet af USA’s regering. Drømmen om en fredelig vej til socialisme var slået fejl.” Ekstramateriale med bl.a. Ken Loach-kortfilm.

Chile 40 år efter kuppet: ‘Det kan ske igen’. Af Andreas Bülow (Modkraft.dk, 11. september 2013)
“Der er gået fyrre år, men Jorge M. Carvajal husker det tydeligt: Militærfanfaren i radioen, talerne om fædrelandet, soldaterne der bevogtede gaderne.”

“Det må aldrig ske igen” (pdf). Af Dorte Ellesøe Hansen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.3, 2013, s.72-80). Om Arbejdermuseet & ABA særudstilling af egne plakater fra det danske støttearbejde til fordel for Chile.

Chile 1973: Ingen fredelig vej til socialisme. Af Martin Hammer (Socialistisk Information, 8.9.2013; tidligere bragt i 2003).
“Unidad Populars regering var et forsøg på en demokratisk og fredelig overgang til socialisme. Kuppet i Chile definerede spørgsmålet: Kan vi stemme os til socialisme?”

DR-chef forsvarer højrefløjsdiktatur. Af Ole Wugge Christiansen (Modkraft.dk, 30. september 2010)
“DR-chef med ansvar for tv-serien ‘Jagten på de røde lejesvende’, Morten Hesseldahl, har forståelse for Chiles tidligere diktator Augusto Pinochet, som han roser for ‘brutalt fokus på udviklingen af et liberalistisk marked’.”

Fortidens synder IV: Da Chile fik en nødvendig ‘overgangs-regering’. Af Ulrik Dahlin (Information, 29. august 2008). 5 printsider.
“Selv om det er ‘utilfredsstillende’ og et tragisk ‘overgreb’, at Chiles generaler i september 1973 styrter landets folkevalgte præsident, forstår Danmarks to store borgerlige aviser nødvendigheden af kuppet. Bare det bliver en kortvarig affære …”

9-11 … i Chile 1973. Af Alfred Lang (Modkraft.dk, 11. september 2006). 9 printsider, med filmhenvisninger.
“11. september 1973 druknede drømmen om en fredelig vej til socialisme i blod.”

Et folks tragedie. Af Mike Gonzales (Socialistisk Revy, nr.8, oktober 1998, s.13-15)
“Chiles venstreorienterede regering – et eksperiment i demokratisk socialisme – blev brutalt smadret af et militærkup for 25 år siden. Mike Gonzales kigger på, hvad der gik galt og hvorfor.”
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Chile 1973: Arbejderregeringen væltes – konsekvensen af en arbejderregering uden et klart socialistisk program. Af Michael Styrk (Revolution, 12. oktober 2003)

Læren af Chile (1979). Del 1-3. Af Alan Woods (Revolution, 10. september 2003). Del 2 (17. oktober 2003) + Del 3 (24. marts 2004). 44 printsider ialt.
“I dag 40 år efter borgerskabets kup i Chile, er det stadigt lærerigt at tage et kig på fortidens erfaringer. Dette dokument blev oprindelig skrevet i 1979, men analysen er mindst lige så relevant i dag som den var i 1979.”

Chile – enden på den parlamentariske vej til socialismen. Af Ian Birchall og Chris Harman (Proletar! nr. 6, november 1973, s.6-13)
“Mange såkaldte marxister har påstået, at den borgerlige stat i moderne tid kan ændres ved hjælp af ‘fredelige’ reformer, i hvert fald i lande med en stærk parlamentarisk tradition. Det var præcis de argumenter, Allende og kommunistpartiet førte i marken i Chile.”

Chile (Kurasje, nr.5-6, 1972, 183 s.)
“Det primære sigte med dette [tema]nummer er at formidle en baggrundsinformation, som – omend utilstrækkeligt – skulle kunne muliggøre en mere klar forståelse af den proces, der i disse år er i gang i det chilensiske samfund.”

Texter om utvecklingen i Chile (Marxistarkiv.se)


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In English

Video: Ken Loach Chile 1973 september 11 (swe sub) (10:53 min.) (see below)

The Pinochet precedent (Transnational Institute, 1999)

Salvador Allende (1908-1973) (Marxists Internet Archive). Key speeches 1970-73.

Articles:

What Salvador Allende feared. By Rossana Rossanda (Jacobin, September 11, 2019)
“On September 11, 1973, Chile’s socialist president Salvador Allende was overthrown in a CIA-backed military coup. In this 1971 interview, published in English for the first time, Allende expressed his fears of internal destabilization and US interference.”

Allende in Chile today. By Noam Titelman (Jacobin, September 11, 2019)
“Nearly five decades after the coup that overthrew leftist president Salvador Allende, the Chilean left is starting to rebuild power. But it still wrestles with the legacy of the bloody defeat of Allende’s democratic revolution.”

A thousand days of democracy (Jacobin, September 11, 2018)
An interview with Marian Schlotterbeck: “The violent overthrow of Salvador Allende on September 11, 1973 brought to a brutal close a thousand days of popular participation and radical democratic ferment.” + Allende’s last speech (ibid.).

Chile’s revolutionary left movement under Allende and Pinochet. By Doug Enaa Greene (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, August 6, 2016)
“About the Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (Movement of the Revolutionary Left, MIR), Chile’s small Guevarist organization.”

Fifty years since its founding: A history of the Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) (Viewpoint Magazine, September 24, 2015)
“Fifty years ago, the Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR) was born, a political force that marked the history of the Chilean and Latin American left. Franck Gaudichaud provides a brief introduction to this story.”

Salvador Allende: Revolutionary democrat. By Laurence Goodchild (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, August 5, 2014). Review of Victor Figueroa Clark’s biography (Pluto Press, 2013, 176 p.): “While detailing a vivid account of Salvador Allende’s life, Clark also provides a much needed historical context to Allende’s leadership of the Popular Unity government, and addresses his political strategy in a manner that is highly relevant to the contemporary ‘pink tide’ in Latin America.”

Building a revolutionary Left in Chile: The MIR, Popular Unity, and Chile’s prerevolutionary moment (International Socialist Review, Issue 91, Winter 2013-14, p.94-113)
“On September 11, 2013, Victor Toro spoke to Orlando Sepúlveda about the foundation of the MIR, the Popular Unity period, the role of revolutionaries during those years, and prospects for Chilean elections, scheduled in November 2013.”

Salvador Allende: Revolutionary Democrat. By Adam Tomes (Counterfire, 24 November 2013). Review of Victor Figueroa Clark’s book (Pluto Press, 2013, 164 p.)
“This biography of Salvador Allende raises the question of whether he was a reformist or a revolutionary, and what can be learned from his brief period in office.”

Looking back at popular power 1970-1973 (International Viewpoint, Issue 465, October 2013)
“Franck Gaudichaud has just published two books, Chili 1970-1973: Mille jours qui ébranlèrent le monde (Presses universitaires de Rennes/IDA, Coll. Amériques, 2013), and, Venceremos! Analyses et documents sur le pouvoir populaire au Chili (Editions Syllepse, Paris, 2013). He was interviewed on 27 August 2013 by Jan Malewski.”

The coup that crushed democracy in Chile (SocialistWorker.org, September 11, 2013). 6 print pages.
“Forty years ago on September 11, Chile’s military, backed by the U.S., carried out a coup against the government of socialist Salvador Allende. Lance Selfa tells the story.”

40 years since the coup in Chile: lessons to learn. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2370, 10 September 2013)
“Augusto Pinochet’s neoliberal experiment began 40 years ago in Chile after a coup. He is celebrated by the right but workers could have beaten him.”

The other 9/11. By Neil Faulkner (Counterfire, 9 September 2013)
“The history of Chile between 1970 and 1973 has rich lessons to teach … It concerns the realities of power when the stakes are this high.”

Apologising for the Chilean coup. By Nathaniel Mehr (International Socialism, Issue 126, Spring 2010). Review of Alistair Horne, Kissinger’s Year: 1973 (Orion Books, 2009) + Grace Livingstone, America’s Backyard (Zed Books, 2009)

New documents link Kissinger, Bush senior to Letelier assassination. By Patrick Martin (World Socialist Web Site, 20 April 2010)
“Documents released last week by the National Security Archive, which has played a valuable role in uncovering evidence of the crimes of American imperialism in Latin America, provide new details on the role of top US officials in facilitating the assassination of former Chilean foreign minister Orlando Letelier.” See also The National Security Archive

Strange Defeat: The Chilean Revolution, 1973 – Pointblank!. By Mike Harman (Libcom.org, Jul 22, 2007)
“Instead of blaming the right and the CIA for the coup like most commentators on the left, Pointblank! point out the role that Allende and the parties of the left played in demobilising the powerful working class.”

Born in the USA: Pinochet’s blood bath. By David Edwards (MediaLens, December 19, 2006)
“Is the suppression of evidence of the US role in Chile’s bloodbath an irrelevant one-off?”

Augusto Pinochet: the tyrant who served the system. By Mario Nain (Socialist Worker, Issue 2031, 16 December 2006)
“Chilean socialist Mario Nain was thrown in prison when Augusto Pinochet took power in his 1973 coup. He writes on the welcome death of a dictator.” Med link i bunden.

Pinochet, Chile’s former US-backed dictator, dead at 91. By Bill Van Auken (World Socialist Web Site, 11 December 2006)
“At the time of his death, Pinochet was facing some 300 criminal complaints related to the murder, torture and kidnappings carried out by his regime.”1973chile4.jpg

The atrocities of Gen. Augusto Pinochet and the United States. By Roger Burbach (NACLA, 2006)
“As the proceedings against Pinochet advanced, reports of US complicity in the coup and the repression began to surface, particularly about the role of Kissinger.”

Chile 1973: The other 11 September. By Ian Birchall (Socialist Review, No.277, September 2003, p.20-21)
“Thirty years ago the left wing government of Chile was drowned in blood. Ian Birchall tries to draw lessons from the tragedy.” Norsk oversættelse: Chile 1973: det andre 11. september (Gnisten, nr.7, 8.10.2005)

Chile: The state and revolution. By Tom Lewis (International Socialist Review, Issue 6, Winter 1999). 14 printed pages.
“The coup of September 11, 1973, represented the final act in a drama whose end was largely determined by the unwillingness of Popular Unity to abandon the parliamentary road in favor of the revolutionary road to socialism at three key junctures throughout the last year of Allende’s government.”

A people’s tragedy. By Mike Gonzalez (Socialist Review, No.222, August-September 1998, p.18-20)
“The left government in Chile-an experiment in democratic socialism-was brutally crushed by a military coup 25 years ago this month. Mike Gonzalez looks at what went wrong and why.”

The Chile coup: The U.S. hand. By Peter Kornbluh (IF magazine, November/December 1998)
“Newly declassified U.S. government records put Washington’s role in the Chilean coup in sharper focus than ever before. The papers also shed light on corners of the story that previously had been suspected, but not proven.
The documents describe how an angry Nixon demanded a coup, if necessary, to block the inauguration of Marxist Salvador Allende following his victory in the 1970 Chilean elections.”

U.S. responsibility for the coup in Chile. By Daniel Brandt (Public Information Research/NameBase.org, November 28, 1998)

The left and the coup in Chile. By Mike Gonzalez (International Socialism, Issue 22, Winter 1984, p.45–86)
“… the left, the potential revolutionary leadership, was trapped within the bourgeois state by its allegiance to a politics of reform which it often amended but never confronted.”

Lessons of Chile 1973. By Alan Woods (In Defence of Marxism, 11 January 1979)
“The arrest of former Chilean dictator Pinochet in London has generated a lot interest about Chile. We take advantadge of this opportunity to publish a document written in 1979 by Alan Woods analysing the history of Chilean labour movement and specially the period of the socialist coalition government of Allende.”

The coup in Chile. By Ralp Miliband (Socialist Register, 1973, p.451-474)
“Chile has … forced upon many people on the Left some uncomfortable reflections and questions
about the ‘strategy’ which is appropriate in Western-type regimes for
what is loosely called the ‘transition to socialism’.”

See also: The other September 11: ‘The Battle of Chile’, Patricio Guzmán’s classic documentary (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, September 11, 2013). Uploaded on the 40th anniversary of US-backed General Augusto Pinochet’s bloody coup against the socialist government of Salvador Allende.


 

Bøger på dansk:

Kuppet i Chile – og den danske venstrefløj. Af Morten Lassen (Informations Forlag, 2015, 432 s.). Se: Et før og efter for den danske venstrefløj, af Kristian Villesen (Information.dk, 5. september 2015) + uddrag fra bogen: “Jeg var jo i den forstand terrorist” (ibid.) + anmeldelse af Svend Vestergaard Jensen: Kuppet i Chile (Socialistisk Information, 3.10.2015), også online på Modkraft.dk (19.10.2015) + anmeldelse af Morten Thing (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 2016, s.176-177).

Chile – kampen for demokrati. Af Kai Rasmussen (Frydenlund, 2010, 141 sider). Se kildetekster og links på His2rie.dk.

Klassekamp bag kulisserne: hvorledes borgerskabet inddæmmer revolutionen og bekæmper de revolutionære. Af DDVs dokumentationsgruppe (Forlaget Demos, 1977)

Chile – om den fredelige overgang til socialismen. Redaktion ved Elna Bering mfl. (Politisk Revy, 1974, 224 sider)

Erfaringen fra Chile: En antologi om muligheden for fredelig overgang til socialisme. Redaktion ved Ellen Brun mfl. (Gyldendal, 1974, 201 sider)

Den chilenske evolution, det fascistiske diktatur og kampen for at styrte det og skabe et nyt demokrati. Beretning af generalsekretær Luis Corvalán ved Chiles kommunistiske Partis Centrakomitémøde i august 1977 (Forlaget Tiden, 1978, 121 sider)

Chile (Kurasje, nr.5-6, 1972, 183 sider). Temanummer om Chile: “Det primære sigte med dette nummer er at formidle en baggrundsinformation …”. Med dokumenter: Unidad Popular’s program + MIR’s svar til UP.

Régis Debray: Samtaler med Allende: Socialisme i Chile (Fremad Fokusbøger, 1972, 145 sider). Svensk udgave: Samtal med Allende (pdf) (Rabén & Sjøgren, 1971, 235 sider; online på Marxistarkiv.se)



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Se også:

Da Pinochet inviterede nyliberalismen. Af Alex Fuentes (Socialistisk Information, 19.09.13)
“Nobelpristageren Milton Friedmans lærlinge, de såkaldte ‘Chicago Boys’, indførte efter militærkuppet nyliberalismens ‘fagre nye verden’. For første gang skulle modellen afprøves på et land.”

Den glemte 11. september. Af Morten Lassen (Kronik i Politiken, 11. september 2013)
“Chiles 11. september gav anledning til et politisk engagement i Danmark. Kunne det ske i dag?”

Chile 40 år efter kuppet. Af Inge K. Hansen og Alfred Lang (Autonom Infoservice, 10. september 2013)
“Mens erindringen om tiden op til militærkuppet i Chile d.11. sep. 1973, under den myrdede præsident Salvador Allende, fortoner sig, så lever diktatoren Augusto Pinochets arv videre.”

Chile in the time of the dictator. By Orlando Sepúlveda (International Socialist Review, Issue 53, May–June 2007). 10 printed pages.
“An analysis of Chile after Pinochet’s coup and the struggle to revive the popular democracy he brutally strangled.”

Photographer Leonardo Henrichsen filming his death (Video, Youtube, 2:03 min.)

Leonardo Henrichsen (Wikipedia.og)


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