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Den 2. Intifada blev startet 8. december 1987, af studerende, skolelever, og andre kristne og muslimske palæstinensere. Der blev lavet demonstrationer og smidt med sten mod den tungt bevæbnede besættelsehær. Hæren svarede igen med kugler og tårergas og daværende forsvarsminister gav ordre til brække arme og ben på demonstranterne.

 

Indhold:


Se også:

Emneboks om Palæstina/Israel (Modkraft.dk/Tidsskriftcentret)

Tidslinjen 8. december 1987 om den første Intifada (Modkraft.dk/Tidsskriftcentret)


2002intifademinde.jpg
Foto: Demonstration i Palæstina på årsdagen i 2011 for Intifadaen
(Se artikel på International Middle East Media Center)

Leksika mv.

Leksikon.org

Intifada

Selvmordsbomber i Israel 1993-2006

Denstoredanske.dk

Intifada

Jerusalem Media & Communication Centre

Second Intifada

Middle East Research and Information Project

MERIP Primer on the uprising in Palestine. By Phyllis Bennis, Deborah J. Gerner and Rebecca Stein (Spring 2002; online at Occupied Palestine)

B’Tselem

Statistics: Fatalities since the outbreak of the second intifada and until operation “Cast Lead” (2000-2008)

Wikipedia.org

Second Intifada m. link til norske artikel.

Civilian casualties in the Second Intifada

2000 Camp David Summit

Olso Accords

First Intifada

Artikler på dansk

Gaia

Palæstina: Fred med krigens midler. Af Lars Ploug (nr.33, sommer 2001, s.52-55)
“For alverdens ’ansvarlige’ statsledere, kommentatorer og journalister er det den palæstinensiske ledelses afvisning af ’rimelige’ israelsk-amerikanske fredsforslag og den nye palæstinensiske intifada, der har ødelagt fredsprocessen. For den almindelige palæstinenser er det fredsprocessen selv, der har ødelagt håbet om en ende på den israelske besættelse, og om en levedygtig og demokratisk stat.”

Palæstina Info

Forhandlingerne i Camp David 2000
“Det er Israel og ikke Arafat, der bærer ansvaret for den sammenbrudte fredsproces, og det er Israel i samarbejde med USA, som kan få sat en stopper for volden, mener mellemøsten forsker Lars Erslev Andersen i en analyse af forhandlingerne i Camp David i år 2000.”

Camp David – oplæg til palæstinensisk fængsel
“De ideer, som fremkom under Camp David topmødet i 2000, var et oplæg til fortsat israelsk kontrol med Vestbredden og udelukkede muligheden for en levedygtig, suveræn stat. Det mener den israelske antropolog og professor Jeff Halper fra Ben Gurion universitetet.”

Den palæstinensiske økonomi i lyset af al Aqsa-intifadaen
“Siden al-Aqsa intifadaens start d. 29. september 2000 har den økonomiske situation i de palæstinensiske selvstyreområder været præget af en voldsom nedgang.”

Politiken

Myten om Camp David. Af Birgitte Rahbek (Kronik i Politiken 17. maj 2002, online på Birgitterahbek.dk)
“Myten lader forstå at israelerne i palæstinenserne ikke har nogen fredspartner, og hvem kan så bebrejde dem at de går hårdt frem mod nogen som kun forstår vold og som ønsker at ødelægge staten Israel.”

Solidaritet

Palæstina: et forudsigeligt og retfærdigt oprør. Af Michael Schølardt (nr.2, maj 2001, s.4-7).
“En afgørende forskel fra tidligere konflikter er at denne konflikt er startet nedefra af de palæstinensiske masser. Og af samme grund har ikke bare USA og Israel mistet kontrollen over begivenhederne, men også de arabiske regimer i regionen og Arafat. Hvor de arabiske regimer står handlingslammet bølger store demonstrationer igennem den arabiske verden.”

Camp David: ingen løsning. Af Christian Ulstrup (nr.4, december 2000, s.24-29).
“Det var håbet, at en aftale om Jerusalem ville bane vejen for en endelig og afsluttende fredsaftale. Det lykkedes som bekendt ikke. I Camp David afviste Arafat det, som vestlige medier ellers har fremstillet som et rimeligt kompromis. Ser man imidlertid det israelske udspil efter i sømmene, er det vanskeligt at få øje på noget kompromis.”

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Al-Aqsa-moskeen i Jerusalem med besættelsestropper
(Kilde: La historia de agresiones israelíes en la Mezquita de Al Aqsa)

Articles in English

The Electronic Intifada

Topic: Suicide Bombings

Palestinian views on suicide operations. By Asa Winstanley (13 October 2009). Review of Nasser Abufarha, The Making of a Human Bomb: An Ethnography of Palestinian Resistance (Duke University Press Books, 2009)

Suicide bombers driven more by politics than religious fundamentalism. By Riaz Hassan (7 May 2004)
“What motivates the perpetrators of such attacks? In a ground-breaking study, University of Chicago political scientist Robert Pape has shown that there is little connection between religious fundamentalism and suicide attacks.”

International Socialism

The crisis in the Middle East. By Anne Alexander (Issue 93, December 2001, p.59-80).
“This article attempts to map out the contradictions of US policy in the Middle East, and the shaky foundations on which the war in Afghanistan depends. It also examines the economic forces shaping the crisis of imperialism in the region, and discusses the potential for resistance from the nationalist movements, the Islamists and the working class.”

Powerless in Gaza: the Palestinian authority and the myth of the ‘peace process’. By Anne Alexander (Issue 89, Winter 2000, p.33-47).
“The gap between the myth of the ‘peace process’ and the sordid realities of imperialism is nowhere greater than in the Middle East. The Palestinians exploded with rage in October 2000 because over the last seven years of negotiations the Israeli state has continued to steal their land, strangle their economy, demolish their houses, turn a blind eye to atrocities committed by Zionist settlers, and inflict collective punishment on entire communities for isolated acts of resistance and revenge.”

International Socialist Review

Ariel Sharon: war criminal. By Hadas Thier (Issue 17, April-May 2001, p.43-47).
“Sharon, nicknamed ‘The Bulldozer’ for his preference for clearing Palestinians off their land, has one of the most extensive and brutal records of war crimes, spanning more than 50 years. To Palestinians, Sharon represents massacres at refugee camps, bulldozed homes, and a complete disregard for the rights and lives of Arabs in the region.”

Standing up to Goliath: the new Intifada (Issue 15, December 2000 – January 2001, p.13-34).
Theme with articles by Lance Selfa, Anthony Arnove, Naseer Aruri, Phil Gasper and Paul D’Amato.</>

International Viewpoint

Theses on globalisation and the Palestine resistance. By Nassar Ibrahim/Majed Nassar (Issue 338, March 2002)
“The heroic resistance of the Palestinian patriotic forces to the imperial project is at the core of the resistance to these processes.”

State, civil society and army in Israel. By Sergio Yahni (Issue 329, March 2001)
“Since the creation of the state of Israel in 1948 the Jewish population has always been defined by military service. The Israeli citizen was ultimately there to serve the state in its war against the Arab world. This definition of citizenship marginalized both the Palestinian Arabs and the orthodox Jews, neither of who serve in the army.”

Al-Aqsa Intifada: the refusal to surrender. By Majed Nassar/Nassar Ibrahim (Issue 327, January 2001)
“The present Intifada is based on a number of political realities that form a framework within which we can understand more fully the events of the past five weeks in the Palestinian occupied territories. Before beginning an analysis of these realities, however, it must be clearly stated that the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza is solely responsible for the Al-Aqsa Intifada.”

Journal of Palestine Studies

The second uprising: end or a new beginning? (pdf). By Rema Hammami/Salim Tamari (Issue 118, Winter 2001, p.5-25)
“This article examines the al-Aqsa intifada against the background of the Oslo accords and the Camp David summit. Comparing its features to those of the first intifada, it analyzes and develops a number of important differences.”

LabourNet

On suicide bombings. By Rema Hammami and Musa Budeiri (12 December 2001)
“The fortitude and determination exhibited by the militants, who are ready to sacrifice their lives on behalf of the rest, risk transforming
Palestinian society into one in which the only people with a political role are those willing to die or to kill while they die. The rest are confined to the role of spectators.”

Middle East Report

An uprising at a crossroads. By Rema Hammami/Jamil Hilal (Issue 219, Summer 2001, s.2-7 + 41)
“More than eight months have passed, and over 500 lives have been lost, since the second intifada broke out in September 2000, but few, if any, of the uprising’s original goals have been achieved.”

Beyond Oslo: the new uprising (Issue 217, Winter 2000, p.2-19 + 22-29). With articles by Rema Hammami, Salim Tamari, Graham Usher, Richard Falk, Mayssoun Sukarieh, Laila Farsakh og Azmi Bishara.

The 94 percent solution: a matrix of control. By Jeff Halper (Issue 216, Fall 2000, p.14-19)
“What is the matrix of control? It is an interlocking series of mechanisms, only a few of which require physical occupation of territory, that allow Israel to control every aspect of Palestinian life in the Occupied Territories.”

MERIP Primer on the uprising in Palestine. By Phyllis Bennis, Deborah J. Gerner and Rebecca Stein (Spring 2002; online at Occupied Palestine)

Palestine, Israel, and the Arab-Israeli conflict: a primer. By Joel Beinin and Lisa Hajjar (Spring 2002, 12 p.)

New Left Review

The Oslo Accords. By Perry Anderson (Issue 10, July-August 2001, p.5-30)
“Behind the second Intifada lies a century of conflict in Palestine. What are its roots, and what are its prospects? The Oslo Accords, the Israeli landscape and the Arab world.”

Erasing the Palestinians. By Gabriel Piterberg (Issue 10, July-August 2001, p.31-46)
“How the founding myths of Israel dictated conceptual removal of Palestinians, during and after physical removal. The invention of ”˜retroactive transfer’ and ”˜present absentees’ as the glacial euphemisms of ethnic cleansing.”

Israel’s Peace Camp. By Yitzhak Laor (Issue 10, July-August 2001, p.47-60)
“An oppositional intelligentsia at one with officialdom – so long as it wears the colours of Labour. An Israeli poet looks at the sanctimonies and sycophancies of a peace camp for foreign consumption.”

Redividing Palestine? By Guy Mandron (Issue 10, July-August 2001, p.61-69)
“Schemes for partition of the Holy Land have always been the fruit of manipulation and violence. What would an equitable division of the area between rival communities look like?”

Securing occupation: the real meaning of Wye River Memorandum. By Norman Finkelstein (Issue 232, November-December 1998, p.128-139; online at Al-Ahram)
“Paradoxically, the fruit of Oslo will perhaps be that the Palestinian struggle for justice will ‘return to the source’.”

New Politics

Taking of the masks: The Al Aqsa Intifada. By Tikva Honig-Parnass (Issue 30, Winter 2001, p.62-74)
“The Al Aqsa Intifada, which brought the Oslo process officially to its end, revealed the colonialist assumptions on which it was based and the shaky arrangements that were supposed to sustain it.”

The struggle for Palestine. By Barry Finger (Issue 30, Winter 2001, p.75-79)
“The breakdown of the Oslo Accord, announced in dramatic and unambiguous terms, by the al-Aksa intifada in the occupied territories and by the parallel awakening of the Palestinians within Israel, marks the triumph – in the words of an Ha’aretz journalist – of the ‘direct-democracy of the street’ over the ‘peace process’.”

The New York Review of Books

Camp David: The tragedy of errors. By Robert Malley and Hussein Agha (August 9, 2001)
“In accounts of what happened at the July 2000 Camp David summit and the following months of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations, we often hear about Ehud Barak’s unprecedented offer and Yasser Arafat’s uncompromising no.”
Debate:

An exchange: (1. An interview with Ehud Barak) (June 13, 2002)

Camp David and after: An exchange (2. A reply to Ehud Barak). By Robert Malley and Hussein Agha (June 13, 2002)

Camp David and after – continued (June 27, 2002)
Benny Morris and Ehud Barak, reply by Robert Malley and Hussein Agha.

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Bøger / Books

På tærsklen til fred: al-Aqsa intifadaen og fredsprocessen i Mellemøsten
Red. af Michael Irving Jensen (Gyldendal, 2001, 283 s.)

Anmeldelse af Irene Clausen (Gaia, nr.33, sommer 2002, s.45-46)

Martyrbrigaderne – de palæstinensiske selvmordsbombere
Af Frida Nome (Informations Forlag, 2003, 212 s.)

Omtale på FagBogInfo.

The New Intifada: Resisting Israel’s Apartheid
Edited by Roane Carey (Verso, 2001, 354 p.)

Review by John Rose (Socialist Review, Issue 256, October 2001, p.30-31)

Roots of the new Palestinian Intifada, by Eric Ruder (Socialist Worker, US, April 12, 2002)

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