Muslim fighters from Tatarstan join the Bolshevik Red Army in 1918. Source: Dawn
Muslim fighters from Tatarstan join the Bolshevik Red Army in 1918. Source: Dawn

Collection of Marxist writings on the bolsheviks and religion i the USSR / Linkbox med Marxister om bolsjevikkerne og religion i Sovjetunionen.

See also at Socialist Library / Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek

  • Tidslinjen 19. juli 1920 om Kominterns 2. kongres og det nationale og koloniale spørgsmål + 1. september 1920 om kongres for østens folk i Baku.
  • Subject overview /emneoversigt: Religion, with all link collections on the subject
  • Link collection / Linkboxen: Socialister om religion – with Danish references.
  • Link collection: Socialists on religion – literature on religion in English.
  • Link collection / Linkboxen: Religionskritiske bøger – newer non-socialistisk litterature i Danish and English


The Bolsheviks, Islam and the women of the east
By Naima Omar (Socialist Review, Issue 433, March 2018)
“Many believe that religion and socialism cannot coexist — that in order to be a socialist you have to be an atheist — yet, the magnificent example of the Bolsheviks’ relationship with Russia’s Muslim population following the 1917 revolutions is rooted in a different tradition.” + Letter from Peter Keighron: Is our theory relevant? (Issue 435, April 2018) + reply from Naima Omar: Marxism and religion (Issue 435, May 2018).

The Bolsheviks and Islam
(International Socialism, Issue 110, Spring 2006, p. 37-59)
“Dave Crouch tells how the Bolsheviks reached out to progressive Muslims as they fought tsarism and Western imperialism.”

Socialism and Islam
By Louis Proyect (January 15, 2007)
“The British Socialist Workers Party has gone further than any other group in trying to reconcile Marxism and political Islam … Although Crouch alludes to the Bolshevik goal of seeking ‘to split the Islamic movement between right and left’, there is very little historical context in the article.”

Islam & socialism
(Socialism Today, Issue 87, October 2004)
“Hannah Sell draws out lessons from the policies of the Bolsheviks in the aftermath of the Russian revolution.”

Secularism, atheism and Bolshevik lessons
By Jack Conrad (Weekly Worker, Issue 553, November 18, 2004)
“How must communists address the question of religion? Lessons can be drawn from Lenin’s approach.”

The Bolsheviks and Islam
(Solidarity, No.46, 19 February 2004)
“Gerry Byrne begins an examination of the relationship between the Russian Bolshevik Party that made the Russian Revolution in 1917 and the Islamic subject states of the Tsarist empire they inherited.”
Part 2: Sharia law (No.47, 4 March 2004)
Part 3: Islamic communism (No.48, 18 March 2004)
Part 4: Enlightenment by force (No.50, 20 April 2004)

Bolsheviks and Islam: religious rights
By Dave Crouch (Socialist Review, Issue 280, December 2003)
“Socialists can learn from how the Bolsheviks approached the Muslims of the Russian empire … [and] took a very different approach to Orthodox Christianity, the religion of the brutal Russian colonists and missionaries.”

The National and Colonial Questions: The first five years of the Comintern, 1919-24 (pdf). By Michael Cox (Searchlight South Africa, Vol.1, No.4, February 1990, p.33-43; online at

Early Bolshevik work among Women of the Soviet East
By Dale Ross (Women and Revolution, No. 12, Summer 1976)
“The triumph of the October Revolution in 1917, which dramatically, transformed the lives of Russian women, wrought even greater transformations in the lives of the women inhabiting the Central Asian regions which had been colonized by tsarist Russia. But in these feudal or pre-feudal generally Islamic cultures, where the lot of women was frequently inferior to that of the livestock, change came more slowly.”

Religion in the Soviet Union, Part One
By Paul Dixon (In Defence of Marxism, 17 April 2006)
“This article written in 1945 analyses the relationship between the Soviet state and the Russian Orthodox Church. There was a clear dividing line between Lenin’’s approach to this question and the zig-zag policy later adopted by Stalin.”
Religion in the Soviet Union, Part Two (11 May 2006)
“This concluding section looks at how the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church adapted to the regime under Stalin and in fact became a privileged layer of Russian society. The hierarchy of other religious groups followed suit. Under Stalin, far from withering away, the influence of the Church began to increase. It was first published in 1945.”

Den ryska revolutionen och den judiska frågan (pdf)
Av Isaac Deutscher (
“Detta är en föreläsning som Isaac Deutscher höll för den judiska föreningen i studentkåren på London School of Economics den 29 oktober 1964.”

Udkast til teser om det nationale og koloniale spørgsmål (1920). Af Vladimir Lenin (Lenin: Udvalgte værker, bd. 13, Forlaget Tiden, 1984, s. 147-52; online på
… nødvendigheden af at bekæmpe pan-islamismen og lignende strømninger, der forsøger på at koble frihedsbevægelsen mod den europæiske og amerikanske imperialisme sammen med en styrkelse af khanernes, godsejernes, mullahernes og andre herskabers position.”