Demonstration i Berlin mod Kapp-kuppet i marts 1920. Text: 1/¤ million deltagere. NB at kupmagerne hænger som papfigurer i lygtepælen. (Kilde: https://joepwritesthehistoryofberlin.wordpress.com/2013/01/25/the-kapp-putsch/)

 

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1920.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

Bladliste

Nye blade i 1920:

  • Folket. Dagblad. Udg. og red. af E. Marott.
  • Folkets ret. Organ for Danmarks uafhængige Socialdemokrati/Det frie Socialdemokrati.
  • Rød ungdom.Organ for Danmarks socialdemokratiske Ungdom.
  • Den tause Arbejder. Udg. af Socialdemokratisk Døvstummeforening “Fremad”.
  • Sø-Arbejderen/Sø- og Transportarbejderen. Udg. af Søarbejdere for Søarbejdere/Sø- og Transportarbejdere i Skandinavien.

Se:
Arbejderhistorisk Bladliste, under året 1920.


1. januar 1920

1912telefon.jpgTelefonistindernes strejke begynder ved slaget tolv (midnat nytårsaften), og efter 6 ugers strejke får de ændret reglerne om, at de ikke måtte gifte sig og få børn uden at blive fyret.

Se:


9. februar 1920

Den danske socialistiske filosof Herbert Iversen dør i New York (født i Nørre Nebel, 26. april 1890, se denne)


18. februar 1920

Journalisten og kulturskribenten Eric Danielsen fødes på Frederiksberg (dør 1. november 2008, se denne)


13. marts 1920

Kapp-kuppet i Tyskland bliver nedkæmpet med generalstrejke og kampe over hele Tyskland.

Se:

  • Kapp-Putsch (Wikipedia.org). Engelsk kortere artikel med links.
  • Kapp-Putsch (Wikipeidia.de). Tysk længere med links.
  • The Kapp Putsch: the united front in action. By Mick Brooks (In Defence of Marxism, 25 May 2010)
  • The Kapp Putsch. Chapter 4, – i: Germany : from revolution to counter-revolution. By Rob Sewell (London, 1988, s.40-48)

20. marts 1920

Første socialdemokratiske regering i Norden (Hjalmar Brantings i Sverige).

Se:


29. marts 1920 1920paaskekupper.jpg

Kong Christian den X.’s (“den Sidste” i datidens socialistpresse) statskup, da han afskediger den radikale regering Zahle, den såkaldte “Påskekrise”.

Se:

Litteratur:

Se også:



Juni 1920

Udgives Lenins Venstrekommunismen – en børnesygdom. Omdeles på Kominterns 2. kongres (se 19. juli-7.august 1920 nedenfor.) Billedresultat for Детская болезнь "левизны" в коммунизме,

Introduction to Lenin’s Left-Wing Communism – An Infantile Disorder. By Elaine Graham Leigh (Counterfire, 18 January 2013). “Lenin wrote Left-Wing Communism to correct mistakes by communist leaders in Europe, particularly in Germany.”

Lenin’s ‘Left-Wing’ Communism: An Infantile Disorder revisited. By John Rose (International Socialism, Issue 138, Spring 2013, p.129-146). “Lenin’s underlying argument called on revolutionary socialists to work wherever the masses are to be found.”

Bolshevism and revolutionary social democracy (Weekly Worker, Issue 917, June 7, 2012). “Lars T Lih completes his series of articles on Lenin’s view of the party question by examining the context in 1920 of ‘Leftwing’ communism.”

Lessons of Lenin’s ‘Left-wing communism’ (Weekly Worker, Issue 837, October 14, 2010). “Jack Conrad argues that the Lenin of Russia remains highly relevant for the tasks of today.”

Se også:


14. juni 1920

Den tyske sociolog og økonom Max Weber dør i München. (Født i Erfurt 21. april 1864, se denne)



19. juli – 7. august 1920

1920KIlenin.jpgAnden kongres i Kommunistisk Internationale (Komintern) vedtager bl.a. teser om det nationale og koloniale spørgsmål og “de 21 betingelser” (for adgang til Komintern, som f.o.fr. skal forhindre adgang/udskille reformister og centrister). Se også herunder om kongressen i Baku, 1.-7. september 1920.

Links:

The dawn of our liberation: The early days of the International Communist women’s movement. By Daria Dyakonova (Marxist Essays and Commentary, September 13, 2018). “Twenty-one women representing 19 countries gathered July 30, 1920 to discuss women’s issues in the framework of the Second Congress of the Communist International (or the Comintern).”

1917 and the colonial revolution. By Peter Solenberger (Against the Current, Issue 194, May-June 2018). “What was different about 1917 is that the revolution was led by a party whose goal was world revolution. The Bolshevik Party and the government it created were committed to spreading the revolution, not just to the advanced capitalist countries but also to the colonies and semi-colonies.”

The Communist International and Imperialism. By Ian Birchall (Viewpoint Magazine, Issue 6, February 2018). “I shall try to set out briefly the strengths and weaknesses of Baku, and then give a short account of the subsequent developments of the Comintern.”

Toward a global strategic framework: The Comintern and Asia 1919-25. Part 1. By John Riddell (Marxist Essays and Commentary, January 4, 2018).  “… in July 1920, the Comintern adopted a far-reaching strategy for national and social revolution in dependent countries, later termed the anti-imperialist united front.” + Part 2: Should Communists ally with revolutionary nationalism? (January 7, 2018) + Part 3: Fruits and perils of the ‘bloc within’ (January 15, 2018).

Building revolutionary parties (Socialist Worker, Issue 2071, 6 October 2007). “John Riddell [looks] at the Comintern’s attempt to build a worldwide party while avoiding the mistakes of the Second International.”

Liberation of the sexes (Socialist Worker, Issue 2074, 27 October 2007). “John Riddell looks at how the revolutionaries made equality for women a central feature of Communism.”

Class struggle and trade unions (Socialist Worker, Issue 2075, 3 November 2007). “John Riddell looks at the role of trade unions in the struggle for change.”

The Mass Parties. Chapter 2, -i: The Comintern. By Duncan Hallas (London, Bookmarks, 1985, p.27-53). “It is useful at this point to look at some others of the 21 conditions.”

History of the Comintern: Colonised peoples take the lead (Green Left Weekly, Issue 734, December 5, 2007). “John Riddell looks at the relationship between communist revolutionaries and colonised peoples.”

Colonial revolts and the West (Socialist Worker, Issue 2072, 13 October 2007). “John Riddell looks at the rise of national liberation movements in countries under the yoke of colonial occupation.”

Udkast til teser om det nationale og koloniale spørgsmål (1920). Af Vladimir Lenin (Lenin: Udvalgte værker, bd. 13, Forlaget Tiden, 1984, s. 147-52; online på Marxisme.dk)

Minutes of the Second Congress of the Communist International, Petrograd, July 19 – August 7 1920 (Marxists Internet Archive):

Se også:

Linkbox: Kommunistisk Internationale (Komintern) 1919-1943 (Socialistisk Bibliotek)

1920ki-praesidiet.gif
Illustration: Kominterns præsidium, II. kongres.


1.-7. september 1920

Kommunistisk Internationale afholder kongres for østens folk i Baku, Aserbajdsjan.

Communism and the East: The Baku Congress, 1920 (pdf). By Stephen White (Slavic Review, Vol.33, No.3, September 1974, p.492-514; online at Intersci.ss.uci.edu)

Litteratur:

Baku: Congress of the Peoples of the East (pdf). Edited and translated by Brian Pearce (New Park Publications, 1977, 205 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

To See the Dawn: Baku, 1920 – First Congress of the Peoples of the East. Edited by John Riddell (Pathfinder Press, 1993, 344 p.)

Billedtekst på Wikipdia.org: An “Eastern Orchestra” played for delegates during the September 1920 Baku Congress. (Source:By Unknown – baki.info, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27390130)

Se også:

The Communist International and Imperialism. By Ian Birchall (Viewpoint Magazine, Issue 6, February 2018). “I shall try to set out briefly the strengths and weaknesses of Baku, and then give a short account of the subsequent developments of the Comintern.”

The Russian Revolution and national freedom. By John Riddell (Socialist Voice, November 1, 2006). “How the early Soviet government led the struggle for liberation of Russia’s oppressed peoples.”

The Bolsheviks and Islam (International Socialism, Issue 110, Spring 2006, p.37-59). “Dave Crouch tells how the Bolsheviks reached out to progressive Muslims as they fought tsarism and Western imperialism.”

Unholy alliance: Muslims and Communists – an introduction (pdf). By Ben Fowkes & Bülent Gökay (Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol.25, No.1, March 2009, p.1-31; online at Tandfonline.com)

The National and Colonial Questions: The first five years of the Comintern, 1919-24 (pdf). By Michael Cox (Searchlight South Africa, Vol.1, No.4, February 1990, p.33-43; online at Disa.ukzn.ac.za)

Se også:



1. september 1920

1920-factory-occupations220.jpg
De italienske metalarbejdere starter en række af fabriksbesættelser over hele landet.

Se:

Italy’s ‘Two Red Years’. Part 76, – i: Neil Faulkner: A Marxist History of the World (Counterfire, 20 May 2012)

A missed revolutionary opportunity. Introduced by Mike Taber and John Riddell (International Socialist Review, Issue 101, Summer 2016). “The Comintern Third Congress discussion on the 1920 Italian factory occupations [Karl Radek, Gregory Zinoviev and Leon Trotsky].”

Italy 1920: When workers seized the factories. By Christine Thomas (Socialism Today, Issue 141, September 2010)

1918-1921: The Italian factory occupations – Biennio Rosso (Libcom.org, Oct 24, 2009)

History matters: Biennio Rosso. By Marc Newman (Socialist Alternative, 2 May 2007)

Italy: The Red Years 1920/21 (Permanent Revolution, January 5, 2007)

Italy September 1920: The occupation of the factories: the lost revolution. By Fernando D’Alessandro (In Defence of Marxism, 9 October 2002)

The Turin factory council movement. By Antonio Gramsci (L’ordine nuovo, 14 March 1921; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

 

1920-factory-occupationTurin460.jpg
Fabriksbesættelse i Turin, 1920

Litteratur:

  • The occupation of the factories. By Paolo Spriano (Pluto Press, 1975, 212 p.)

Review:
Proletarian order. By Robert Lumley (International Socialism, No.83, November 1975)

Se også:


24. september 1920

Den russiske bolsjevik Inessa Armand dør. (Født 8. maj 1874, se denne)


12. oktober 1920

På kongressen i Halle diskuterer USPD, Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, for og imod tilslutning til Kominttern og de “21. betingelser”.


19. oktober 1920

Den amerikanske journalist John Reed dør i Moskva, og begraves ved Kreml-muren. Skrev den populære bog om oplevelsen af den russiske revolution i november 1917 Ti dage der rystede verden. Født 22. oktober 1887.
Se:

  • Personlisten om John Reed (Socialistisk Bibliotek)


7. november 1920

Til den Russiske Revolutions 3-årsdag afsløres på Kunstakademiet i St. Pedersborg (senere Leningrad) et “Monument for Tredje Internationale” af Vladimir Tatlin (født 28.12.1885 i Kharkov, Ukrina – dør 31.5.1953 i Moskva). Modellen blev samlet igen til den 8. Alrussiske Sovjetkongres 22.-29. december 1920 i Moskva. Det planlagte monumentet var et over 400 m. højt abstrakt “tårn”-skulptur til rejsning i St. Pedersborg i såkaldt konstruktivistisk stil blev aldrig realiseret.

Exhibition of Russian-Soviet artist Vladimir Tatlin in Basel, Part 1-6. By Sybille Fuchs and Marianne Arens (World Socialist Web Site, 19-30 June 2012)

A comment on Tatlin in London today. By Virginia Smith (World Socialist Web Site, 26 May 2010). Tower for 2012 Olympics reprises monument to the Third International.

Tatlin’s Tower. By Roger Huddle (Socialist Review, Issue 339, September 2009). Review of Norbert Lynton, Tatlin’s Tower: Monument to Revolution (Yale University Press, 2009)

A beardless monument. By Owen Hatherley (International Socialism, Issue
124, Autumn 2009). Review of Norbert Lynton, Tatlin’s Tower: Monument
to Revolution
(Yale University Press, 2009)

1920Tatlin_3rd_International_Monument_model_1920.jpg
Udstillingen af modellen til Tatlins monument i 1920. Modellens størrelse kan sammenlignes med personen i nederste højre hjørne.

Se også:



1920braver.jpg
9. december 1920

Den amerikanske socialist og marxistiske økonom, Harry Braverman, fødes i New York. (Dør 2. august 1976 i Honesdale, Pennsylvania). Redaktør på tidsskriftet The American Socialist (1954-1959) og direktør på tidsskriftet Monthly Review (1967-1976).
Hans hovedværk er bogen Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century (Monthly Review Press, 1974, 465 p.). På dansk: Arbejde og monopolkapital. Bind 1 (Demos, 1978, 226 s.; bind 2 ikke udkommet). Se
debat om bogen nedenfor.

Beyond the degradation of Labor: Braverman and the structure of the U.S. working class (pdf). By R. Jamil Jonna and John Bellamy Foster (Monthly Review, Vol.66, No.5, October 2014; online at Johnbellamyfoster.org). “In the four decades since its appearance Braverman’s book has continued to play a central role in debates on workers’ struggles within industry …”

Braverman’s new world? Assessing the Labour process in recent scholarship (pdf). By Jeremy Milloy (Left History, Vol.15, No.2, Summer 2011, p.91-101). “This essay reviews several recent works that examine key recent developments in capitalism.”

Harry Braverman: Marxist activist and theorist. By Michael G. Livingston (Marxists Internet Archive). “A talk presented at the ‘Explorations in the History of U.S. Trotskyism Conference’, New York University, 2000.”

Braverman and the class struggle. By Michael D. Yates (Monthly Review, Vol.50, No.8, January 1999). “Far from ignoring the class struggle, Harry Braverman in Labor and Monopoly Capital has provided us with an invaluable weapon in that struggle …”

Before Braverman: Harry Frankel and the American workers’ movement. By Bryan D. Palmer (Monthly Review, Vol.50, No.8, January 1999). “I want to address what was great about Harry Braverman. And to do that I offer only a sketch of a life ‘before Braverman’, commenting on a man some will know as Harry Frankel.” Only abstract online.

The making of the american working class (pdf). By Harry Braverman (Monthly Review, Vol.46, No.6, November 1994, p-14-35). “What follows is the transcription of a talk given at a weekend seminar in February 1975 at Empire State College and aired over Pacific Radio.”

Monthly Review. Special issue commemorating Harry Braverman’s “Labor and Monopoly Capital (Vol. 46, No. 6: November 1994, not online,only Table of Contents, but google article excerpts)) + the this ones online:Labor and Monopoly Capital in the Labor Education Context. By Bruce Nissen, Peter Seybold (page 36-44; on Truty.org)

Debate and reviews
of Labor and Monopoly Capital / Arbejde og monopolkapital:
1920bravmon2.jpg
The book online: Labor and Monopoly Capital (pdf) (Digamo.free.fr). På svensk: Arbete och monopolkapital (Rabén & Sjögren, 1977, 401 s.; Marxists Internet Archive, Svenska arkivet).

Arbejde og monopolkapital. Af Niels Mortensen (Politica, bind 11, nr.2, 1979, s.154-55; online på Tidsskrift.dk). “Det er godt, at vi får en dansk oversættelse af Braverman, for det er en enestående bog.”

The raw material of exploitation: Harry Braverman’s ‘Labor and Monopoly Capital’. By Doug Enaa Greene (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, August 26, 2015). “Braverman’s book not only unveils how work is degraded under capital, but remains an important resource for how we understand capitalist society, working-class consciousness, and the class struggle today.”

Against management: Harry Braverman’s Marxism. By Dave Renton. Chapter 8, in: D. Renton, Dissident Marxism (Zed Books, 2004, p.162-183). “The most powerful book ever written about work is Harry Braverman’s Labor and Monopoly Capital. It is a sustained historical account of the different managerial initiatives that have shaped people’s experience of work since the end of the nineteenth century.”

Thinking it through: Class confrontation. By Chris Harman (Socialist Review, No.164, May 1993; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “It may be true, as the American Marxist Harry Braverman has argued, that most individual jobs are less skilled today than a generation ago. But this does not mean capitalism needs workers to have less education. Quite the opposite.”

Valorisation and ‘Deskilling’: A critique of Braverman (pdf). By Tony Elger (Capital and Class, Vol.3, No.1, Spring 1979, p.58-99). ” This paper focusses on his major theme, and rejects as inadequate both his analysis of capital’s generic impulsion to deskill and his location of the consummation of that impulsion in monopoly capitalism.”

‘Labour and Monoly Capital’. By Rod Coombs (New Left Review, Issue 107, January-February 1978, p.79-96). “The book’s apparently untheoretical approach is deceptive. In a simple style, but with great attention to detail, the author describes the inter- and intra-occupational shifts which have taken place in twentieth-century American capitalism …” Only abstract online.

Labour and Capital. By Colin Barker (International Socialism, No.86, February 1976; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “This is a superb book. Every socialist should have a copy.”

Labour and Monopoly Capital: a review (pdf). By Margery Davies and Frank Brodhead (Radical America, Vol.9, No.2, 1975, p.79-94; online at Libcom.org). “What Braverman has done is to link the transformation of the working class to the growth of monopoly capitalism …” Scroll down.

Se også:


25. december 1920

Det franske socialististparti (SFIO)’s flertal tilslutter sig på kongressen i Tour til Kommunistisk Internationale og tager navneforandring til PCF, mens mindretallet fortsætter det gamle navn.

Se:


 

 

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