Sailors of Kronstadt 1921. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain.
Sailors of Kronstadt 1921. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Forord

Kronstadt-oprøret startes 2. marts 1921 af soldater og matroser som reaktion på Bolsjevikpartiets politik over for landbruget og på situationen i landet. Opstanden slås ned af Bolsjevikkerne den 17. marts. Hærens politiske leder er den russiske revolutions organisator Leon Trotskij.
Debatten om begivenhederne, deres karakter, bolsjevikernes politik, statens karakter mv. kommer i gentagne debatter i 20’erne, 30’erne, og i årene efter 68-oprøret i det nye venstre kommer de gamle debatter op igen mellem anarkistiske og trotskistiske traditioner.
Vi har lagt vægt på denne historiske diskussion i samlingen af links til debatten af Kronstadt.

Se også:

Emnelisten Den Russiske Revolution 100 år (Socialistisk Bibliotek).

Emnelisten Den russiske revolution, fra februar – oktober 1917 (Socialistisk Bibliotek).


Tekst: "Længe leve revolutionens fortrop" og nederst på plakaten: "Den Røde Flåde"
Tekst: “Længe leve revolutionens fortrop” og nederst på plakaten: “Den Røde Flåde”

Indhold

 


Kronstadt sailors on the battleship Petropavlovsk, 1917. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain.
Kronstadt sailors on the battleship Petropavlovsk, 1917. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

 

Leksikalt


 

Sites

Nedenstående to omfattende engelsksprogede sites alene rummer det meste af debatten og samtidige dokumenter om Kronstadt, begivenheder og perspektiver, fra hhv. bred trotskistisk tradition og anarkistisk. Den første (MIA) har dog medtaget disse to hovedsider i debatten. I de andre sektioner er gentaget de meste centrale dokumenter og bidrag til debatten.

Kronstadt 1921 (Marxists Internet Archive, MIA).
With documents, among others Kronstadt Izvestia (Issue 1-14, 1921) + government communiques, articles and pamphlets (1921-1971) by Dwight Macdonald, Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Alexander Berkman, Ante Ciliga, Emma Goldman, Nestor Makhno + ‘the Victor Serge vs Leon Trotsky debate’ november 1937-february 1939.
See also: Victor Serge: Kronstadt ’21 (1945), Maurice Brinton (1967), Chris Harman (1971) & Tony Cliff (1990), John G. Wright: The Truth about Kronstadt (New International, February 1937) (Leon Trotsky: “Whoever wishes to unravel … lies should first of all read [this article] …”).

Kronstadt (Libcom.org).
“Articles about the 1921 mutiny and rebellion of sailors and workers on the Kronstadt naval base against the authoritarianism of the new Russian Bolshevik government” + pamphlets by Ida Mett, Cajo Brendel mfl.

Kronstadthändelserna 1921 (Marxistarkiv.se).
“Här försöker vi samla texter om detta ur olika synvinklar.”


 

Facsimile of the publication of the Kronstadt rebels, who fought to protect the gains of the Russian Revolution from the new Bolshevik authoritarianism. Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Soldiers and Workers of the town of Kronstadt - Issues 1-14, March 3-March 16, 1921. Originally edited by Anatoli Lamanov.
Facsimile of the publication of the Kronstadt rebels, who fought to protect the gains of the Russian Revolution from the new Bolshevik authoritarianism. Izvestia of the Provisional Revolutionary Committee of Sailors, Soldiers and Workers of the town of Kronstadt – Issues 1-14, March 3-March 16, 1921. Originally edited by Anatoli Lamanov. Source: libcom.org.

Dokumenter

Samtidige dokumenter:

Kronstad-sovjetten i den russiske revolution. Af Kim Frederichsen (SFAH, februar 2018 + april 2021).
Om ny russisk dokumentsamling [Kronstadt-sovjetten i 1917. Protokoller og forordninger, bind 1: marts-juni 1917, 560 sider, Sankt Petersborg, Dmitrij Bulanin, 2017] + om bind 2: juli-oktober 1917.

Kronstadt Izvestia (Marxists Internet Archive, MIA; History section).
“Main publication of the Kronstadt rebels, who fought to protect the gains of the Russian Revolution from the growing Bolshevik bureaucracy and authoritarianism. Issues 1-14, March 3-March 16, 1921.”
Oversat til dansk i Niels Brunse & Hans-Jørgen Nielsen (red.): Oprøret i Kronstadt: et dokumentarium om marts 1921 (Rhodos, 1973, s.45-241).

The truth about Kronstadt (Prag, 1921). A translation with a discussion of the authors by Scott Zenkatsu Parker, edited by Mary Huey (1992/1998).
“A translation of Pravda o Kronshtadte, produced by SRs shortly after the event in 1921.”

Sanningen om Kronstadt. Av Maria Isidine (Röda Fanor, nr.6, juni 1921; online på Anarkistiska Studier).

Kronstadt (pdf). Av V.I. Lenin & Leo Trotskij (Marxistsarkiv.se, [1979], 49 sider).
15 tekster af Lenin og Trotskij fra 1921,oversat til svensk, se s.22-38.

The Kronstadt uprising. By Karl Radek (Bulletin Communiste, April 1, 1921; online at Workers’ Liberty).
“A great joy seized white-guards all over the world when on the 2nd of March, news reached the outside world that that the sailors of Kronstadt had risen up against the Soviets.”

The Krondstadt Rebellion (1922). By Alexander Berkman (Berlin, Der Syndikalist, 1922, 42 p.; online at Anarchy Archives).

My further disillusionment in Russia. By Emma Goldman (New York, Doubleday, 1924; online at Anarchy Archives). See chapter VI: Kronstadt


 

Danske (skandinaviske) artikler mv.

NB: Evt. links til skandinaviske oversættelser af engelsksprogede artikler og pjecer, kan ligge under de pågældende titler på engelsk.

Kronstadt – sidste stop før Stalin. Af Daniell Marcussen (Aktivist.nu, 35 sider).
Hf-opgave i historie, med dokumenter og litteraturliste. Artiklen er p.t. ikke online.

For 100 år siden: Revolten i Kronstadt – et essay (Autonom Infoservice, 11. marts 2021). “Revolten startede med en stor protestdemo den 26. februar 1921 i flådens hovedbase Kronstadt nær Petrograd … Bolsjevikpartiets nedkæmpelse af Kronstadt-oprøret den 18. marts 1921 var et markant nederlag for rådsidéen i Rusland.”

Debatt om Kronstadrevolten 1921 (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se).
“Under 1981 fördes i veckotidningen Internationalen en debatt om händelserna i Kronstadt 1921. Vi har nedan samlat artiklarna.”

Om Kronstadtupproret 1921 (1979) (pdf). Av Pierre Frank (Marxistarkiv.se, 16 sider). Förordet till en bok som innehåller en sammanställning av artiklar etc. som Lenin och Trotskij skrivit om Kronstadtupproret: [Kronstadt, 1979].

Kronstadt 1921 (Afsnit fra Arbetarråden – de proletära maktorganen, Arbetarpress, 1975; online på Marxists Internet Archive (MIA), svenske sektion).

Meningsutbyte om Kronstadt (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, 3.4.2012).
“De följande debattinläggen består av artiklar/brev som publicerades i de amerikanska trotskisternas månatliga teoretiska tidskrift New International 1938-39.”

Kronstadt-opprøret (1938). Av Anton Ciliga (Frihetlig.org; online på Internet Archive WayBackMachine). Utgitt på norsk av Kommunen/Folkebladet i 1972. Oversættelse af The Kronstadt Revolt (Libcom.org).

Suppression of the Kronstadt mutiny. Soldiers of the Red Army attack the island fortress of Kronstadt on the ice of the Gulf of Finland. After 6 March 1921, before 18 March 1921. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain.
Suppression of the Kronstadt mutiny. Soldiers of the Red Army attack the island fortress of Kronstadt on the ice of the Gulf of Finland. After 6 March 1921, before 18 March 1921. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

 

Articles, pamphlets & book extracts

What was the Kronstadt Rebellion?. By Iain McKay (An Anarchist FAQ, 2010, 101 p.; online at The Anarchist Library).

Kronstadt 1921: Bolshevism vs. counterrevolution: Russian archives refute Anarchist lies, again. By International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) (Spartacist, No.59, Spring 2006).

Kronstadt: Trotsky was right! By A. Kramer (In Defence of Marxism, December, 2003)
“New material from Soviet archives confirms the Bolsheviks’ position.”

A tragic necessity. By Abbie Bakan (Socialist Worker Review, Issue 136, November 1990).
“Continuity between Lenin and Stalin is often claimed by reference to the Kronstadt revolt of 1921. But as Abbie Bakan explains the repression was necessary to defend the revolution.”

The Kronstadt Uprising of 1921. By Lynne Thorndycraft ( Left Bank Books, 1976, 19 p.; online at Libcom.org).
“The story of the Kronstadt revolt, compactly told, a decisive moment in the Bolshevik counter-revolution.”

The lessons of Kronstadt (1975). By International Communist Current (ICC) (International Review, No.3, October 1975).
ICC is an Left Communist tendency.

How the revolution was lost? (Anarchism Web Site).
“A critique of Chris Harman’s ‘How the Revolution was Lost’ showing the links between Leninism and the rise of Stalinism.”
See also Chris Harman’s article in International Socialism (No.30, Autumn 1967); og i dansk udgave: Den russiske revolutions nederlag (Internationale Socialister, 1973, 29 s.; online på Marxisme Online).

Hue and cry. By Chris Harman (International Socialism, No.49, Autumn 1971).
A review of Maurice Brinton, The Bolsheviks and Workers Control (Solidarity, 1970) + Paul Avrich, Kronstadt 1921 (Princeton University Press, 1970).

1921 and all that. By Brian Pearce (Labour Review, Vol.5, No.3, October-November 1960).
“What was the setting in which the garrison of Kronstadt, the fortress-island which guards the seaward approach to Leningrad, mutinied against the Soviet power, and in which an opposition faction claiming to represent the interests of the Soviet working class, against the line of Lenin and Trotsky, appeared within the Russian Communist Party?”

The unknown revolution 1917-1921 (1947). By Voline (Black & Red/Solidarity, 1974; online at Libcom.org). See Book 3, Part 1: Kronstadt 1921 (p.439-538).

Kronstadt ’21. By Victor Serge (1945) (online at Libcom.org).
“We reproduce an excerpt from Memoirs of a Revolutionary … Despite Serge remaining an (albeit highly critical) Bolshevik apologist and remaining in the camp of those who claimed Kronstadt as ‘a tragic necessity’, he is honest enough to describe the facts of the situation in their own damning terms.”
Se også svensk udgave: Kronstadt 1921 (Marxists Internet Archive (MIA); svenska arkivet).

The Kronstadt uprising of 1921 (1938). By Ida Mett (Solidarity, 1967, 93 p.; online at Libcom.org). With preface and introduction by Maurice Brinton and Murray Bookchin.
“Ida Mett’s history of the Kronstadt uprising highlights one of the most important yet neglected events of the Russian Revolution.”
Se også svensk udgave: Kronstadt 1921 (1938) (Libertad, 1968, 83 sider; online på Marxists Internet Archive (MIA); svenska arkivet).


 

Litteratur

“Kronstadt-oprøret”. Kapitel 24 i: Den russiske revolution (Slagmark, 2017, s.288-301) (Slagmarks revolutionsserie).
Med Kronstadt-matrosernes resolution + en avisartikel, efterfulgt af to Lev Trotskij-artikler.

Oprøret i Kronstadt: et dokumentarium om marts 1921. Redigeret af Niels Brunse & Hans Jørgen Nielsen (Rhodos, 1973, 420 s.) (Revolutionshistoriske dokumenter, bind 2).
“Dette omfattende dokumentarium rummer dels analyser til belysning af, hvad der faktisk foregik og den historiske betydning af det, dels oversatte uddrag af det meste af den relevante litteratur. Det mest omfangsrige kapitel er en oversættelse af oprørernes egen avis. Desuden er der tekster af bl.a. Lenin, Trotsky, Berkman, Serge, Goldman og Enzenberger.”

Kronstadt 1917-1921: the fate of a Soviet democracy. By Israel Getzler (Cambridge University Press, 1983, 296 p.). Online at Libcom.org.
“This is the first major study of revolutionary Kronstadt to span the period from February 1917 to the uprising of March 1921. This book focuses attention on Kronstadt’s forgotten golden age, between March 1917 and July 1918, when Soviet power and democracy flourished there.”

Kronstadt 1921. By Paul Avrich (Princeton University Press, 1970, 271 p.). Online at Libcom.org.
“A detailed book-length history of the Kronstadt uprising of workers and sailors against the burgeoning Bolshevik dictatorship during the Russian revolution.”

The Serge-Trotsky Papers. Edited and introduced by David Cotterill (Pluto Press, 1994).
See chapter 4 for the Trotsky-Serge debate 1937/1938: Kronstadt and the Fourth International, introduction by Susan Weissman (p.150-62), The documents (p.162-91).

Kronstadt (pdf). Av V.I. Lenin & Leo Trotskij (Marxistarkiv.se, [1979], 49 s.).
Med forord af Pierre Frank, og 22 tekster af Lenin og Trotskij fra 1921 og 1937/1938. Forkortet udgave af V.I. Lenin & Leon Trotsky: Kronstadt (Monad Press, 1979, 159 p.).

Red Army troops enter Kronstadt after the liquidation of the Kronstadt Kronstadt rebellion. Left: Ivan Fedko. Center: Pavel Dybenko. 18 March 1921. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain.
Red Army troops enter Kronstadt after the liquidation of the Kronstadt Kronstadt rebellion. Left: Ivan Fedko. Center: Pavel Dybenko. 18 March 1921. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

 

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  1. Please add to your list:
    “Anarcho-Libertarian Myths Exposed: Kronstadt and Counterrevolution Review of ‚Kronstadt 1921‘ by Paul Avrich“, in : “Workers Vanguard” Nos. 195 and 203, 3 March and 28 April 1978

    https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/workersvanguard/1978/0195_03_03_1978.pdf pp. 6/7,11

    https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/workersvanguard/1978/0203_28_04_1978.pdf pp. 4-8

    „Kronstadt and Counterrevolution Then and Now – Yeltsin Sings an Old Anti-communist Tune“, in: „Workers Vanguard” No. 595, 4 March 1994 https://www.marxists.org/history/etol/newspape/workersvanguard/1994/0595_04_03_1994.pdf p. 9

    Disclaimer: I’m not authorized to represent http://www.spartacist.org of which I am not a member. I’m posting this on my own initiative.

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