Hamas's logo. Text:
Hamas's logo. Text: "Der er ingen Gud foruden Allah og Mohammad er hans sendebud" - Og over det grønne felt: "Palæstina" og i feltet: "Den islamiske modstandsbevægelse - Hamas"

Linkbox med faktaartikler, baggrundsmateriale og debat på dansk og engelsk om den islamistiske organisation Hamas, som har haft ’regeringsmagten’ i Gaza siden 2006.


Fakta

Leksikon for det 21. århundrede
Hamas
Selvmordsbomber i Israel 1993-2006

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hamas
History of Hamas
Fatah-Hamas conflict
2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict

På dansk

Aktivist.nu
Palæstinas venstrefløj, 1-5. Af Inge Kongsgård Hansen og Alfred Lang (2002)
Artiklen har mindre omtaler af Hamas, især i 3. del om Palæstinas kvinder.

Information.dk
’Hamas kæmper en kamp for frihed’. Af Anne Hertzum Alling (16. april 2015)
“Når Hamas dræber civile israelere, er der ikke tale om terror, fordi alle israelere er soldater og dermed medskyldige i besættelsen af de palæstinensiske områder … forklarer højtstående medlem af Hamas og professor ved Gazas Islamiske Universitet, Salam Salameh.”
Israels eget uhyre. Af Kenan Malik (24. juli 2014)
“Efter at have brugt tre årtier på at skabe Hamas har Israels brugt de følgende to på at forsøge at ødelægge organisationen gennem kollektiv afstraffelse af palæstinenserne.”
Hamas – en terrororganisation og et socialt sikkerhedsnet. Af Lasse Skou Andersen (16. juli 2014)
“Hamas er andet end en terrororganisation, som sender missiler ind over Israel og sprænger selvmordsbomber. Hamas er også en politisk og social organisation, som står bag udbygningen af et velfærdssystem på Gazastriben. Vi tegner et portræt af Hamas.”

Modkraft.dk
Hamas militærkup i Gaza skal fordømmes. Af Hanna Amireh (Kontradoxa, 28. juni 2007)
“USAs og EUs isolationspolitik af Hamas har spillet fallit, mener Hanna Amireh, der er medlem af Palestinian Peoples Party og PLOs ledelse.”
Se større debat af artiklen på Modkraft Debat: “Hamas militærkup…”?

Le Monde Diplomatique
Det nye Hamas: ‘To folk, to stater’. Av Paul Delmotte (03.01.07)
“Hvorfor nekter Hamas fremdeles, på tross av omfattende press fra alle kanter, å anerkjenne staten Israel? Fordi bevegelsen ikke har noen verdens ting å tjene på det. Hamas er i dag svært annerledes enn tidligere.”

Palæstina-Info
De islamiske modstandsbevægelser i Palæstina – Hamas og islamisk Jihad. Af Michael Irving Jensen (2002)
“I denne artikel beskriver Michael Irving Jensen de islamiske organisationer Hamas og Islamisk Jihad. Han gennemgår Hamas’ ideologi, dens mål og midler. Han skitserer endvidere organisationens forhold til de øvrige palæstinensiske organisationer, dens rivalisering med PLO og dens betydning efter den 2. Intifada.”
Se også Michael Irving Jensens bog fra 2002: Hamas i Gazastriben (se FagBogInfo), som fornylig er kommet i rev. engelsk udgave: The political ideology of Hamas: A grassroots perspective (I.B. Tauris, 2008)

Socialistisk Information
Brug for et alternativ til Hamas og Fatah. Af Gilbert Achcar (04.02.09)
“Det er simpelthen ikke muligt at besejre Israel militært udefra. Derfor må enhver fornuftig strategi for at besejre den zionistiske stat tage højde for behovet for en større omvæltning inden for selve det israelske samfund.”

Solidaritet
Palæstina: Et kup mod demokrati og selvbestemmelse. Af Lars Ploug (nr.4, oktober 2008). Artiklen er p.t. ikke online.
“Den officielle fortælling går på, at det var Hamas der med kuppet i juni sidste år viste deres sande, antidemokratiske og terroristiske ansigt, og at det netop var fraværet af respekt for demokratiske spilleregler, der har gjort sanktions- og boycotregimet nødvendigt … [men] kuppet var et mod-kup. Fatah-millitserne var blevet bevæbnet med moderne, udenlandske våben, og de forberedte sig på deres eget kup mod Hamas.”

Se også:

Om Palæstina/Israel (Modkraft.dk/Tidsskriftcentret)

Foto: Hamas-banner fejrer valgsejr i Gaza. Kilde: DanPal
Foto: Hamas-banner fejrer valgsejr i Gaza. Kilde: DanPal

På engelsk

 

Against the Current
Hamas under the spotlight. By Hisham H. Ahmed (No.132, January/February 2008). Review article of four books about Hamas.
“The books discussed here provide insights into the evolution of Hamas as well as the ideologically charged debate about its so-called ‘terrorist’ character.”

AlterNet
America’s hidden role in Hamas’s rise to power. By Stephen Zunes (January 3, 2009)
“No one in the mainstream media or government is willing to acknowledge America’s sordid role interfering in Palestinian politics.”

The Commune
Gender, nation, class and the first intifada. By Aitemad Muhannah, 22.04.2010)
“Since Hamas was first established as an Islamic political movement within Palestinian society in December 1987 the leftist movement in Palestine has gradually come to be fragmented, and seems to be losing its popular constituency.”

Counterfire
Can Hamas Liberate Palestine? (August 9, 2014)
“Sean Ledwith looks at the origins of Hamas and its role as an expression of popular Palestinian resistance to Israeli occupation.”

CounterPunch
What is Hamas, really? By Ron Jacobs (December 31, 2008). Review of Khaled Hroub, Hamas: A beginner’s guide (Pluto Press, 2006, 170 p.)
“The author utilizes a question and answer format to explain the politics and tactics of Hamas, their relationship to and with other Palestinian organizations, Israel and the rest of the world Hroub, a Palestinian supporter of a secular and independent Palestinian state, also examines the role of religion in Hamas’ internal and external politics, as well as the group’s opinion of democracy and theocracy.”

Covert Action Quarterly
Israel and HAMAS. By Rezeq Faraj (No.71, Winter 2001)
“Rezeq Faraj looks for the roots of suicide bomb attacks on Israel – and finds that Israel helped Hamas early and often.”

The Electronic Intifada
Hamas’ choice: Recognition or resistance in the age of Obama. By Ali Abunimah (6 July 2009)
“In a major policy speech on 25 June 2009, Khaled Meshal, the head of Hamas’ political bureau, tried to do what may be impossible: present the Islamist Palestinian resistance organization as a willing partner in a US-led peace process, while holding on to his movement’s political principles and base.”

Foreign Policy in Focus
The Hamas victor: Another side to the story. By Stephen Zunes (February 6, 2006)
“Lost amidst the predictably negative reaction to the victory by Hamas in the Palestinian parliamentary elections is the crucial role that the U.S. government had in bringing the radical Islamist group to power.”

Green Left Weekly
A dispassionate look at Hamas. By Kim Bullimore (Green Left Weekly, Issue 712, 1 June 2007). Review of Khaled Hroub, Hamas: A beginner’s guide (Pluto Press, 2006, 170 p.)
“While Hroub clearly departs from and challenges the simplistic Zionist narrative propagated about Hamas, he provides a well researched and nuanced understanding of the evolving nature of the organisation.”

In Defence of Marxism
Why Marxists cannot support Islamic fundamentalism – the case of Hamas. By Communist League of Action (2 October 2007)
“The vote for Hamas was not a vote for its reactionary, anti-Semitic project, nor for its attitude towards women, etc., but revenge against Fatah and a vote for a change in living conditions.”
Hamas wins Palestinian elections: the early stages of the class struggle and the hypocrisy of imperialist democrats. By Alon Lessel and Yossi Schwartz (1 February 2006)
“Hamas is not a revolutionary party, but a reactionary bourgeois party with radical rhetoric. In reality, it can no more help the Palestinians than Fatah or for that matter, the imperialist bourgeoisie of Israel or the USA.”
The origins of Hamas and its role today. By Yossi Schwartz (In Defence of Marxism, August 21, 2003)
“This article looks at the origins of this movement. It recalls how in the past, when it suited them, the Israeli authorities tried to use Hamas as a counterbalance to the influence of the PLO.”

International Socialism
Hamas, Gaza and the blockade. By Jamie Allinson (Issue 128, Autumn 2010)
“In what follows I … [would] trace Hamas’s origins as a national liberation movement with Islamist characteristics, emerging from the failure of the previous generation of secular and leftist Palestinian organisations.”

International Viewpoint
First reflections on the electoral victory of Hamas. By Gilbert Achcar (Issue 374, January 2006)
“The sweeping electoral victory of Hamas is but one of the products of the intensive use made by the United States in the Muslim world, since the 1950’s, of Islamic fundamentalism as an ideological weapon against both progressive nationalism and communism.”

Journal of Palestine Studies
The making of a Palestinian Islamic leader, Part 1. Khalid Mishal interviewed by Mouin Rabbani (Vol.37, No.3, Spring 2008) + Part 2 (No.4, Summer 2008)
“What is striking about Mishal is that while he is as close as one gets to the heart and soul of the Hamas movement, it’s easy to imagine in his presence that one is speaking not with an Islamist leader of the 21st century, but with a leader of Fatah in the 1970s or of the PFLP in the 1980s. As a colleague who spent some time with him once noted, his exegesis in discussion is Palestinian nationalist rather than Quranic.”
A ‘New Hamas’ through its new documents. By Khaled Hroub (Vol.35, No.4, Summer 2006)
“Analysis of the documents reveals not only a strong programmatic and, indeed, state building emphasis, but also considerable nuance in its positions with regard to resistance and a two-state solution. The article pays particular attention to the sectarian content of the documents, finding a progressive de-emphasis on religion in the three.”
Artiklerne er p.t. ikke online.

LabourNet
On suicide bombings. By Rema Hammami and Musa Budeiri (12 December 2001)
“The fortitude and determination exhibited by the militants, who are ready to sacrifice their lives on behalf of the rest, risk transforming
Palestinian society into one in which the only people with a political role are those willing to die or to kill while they die. The rest are confined to the role of spectators.”
See also:
Selvmordsbomber i Israel 1993-2006 (Leksikon.org)

Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal
Palestine: Hamas is leading a legitimate struggle for self-determination. By Rupen Savoulian (September 4, 2014)
“In fact, let us clear up another misconception: No, Hamas is not ISIS and ISIS is not Hamas.”

Middle East Report
Hamas back out of its box. By Nicolas Pelham (Middle East Report Online, September 2, 2010)
“If the goal of Western policy is to keep the Islamists out of sight, out of mind, then Hamas is like a jack-in-the-box, periodically jumping out of its confines to general surprise and consternation.”
Hamas risen. By Graham Usher (Issue 238, Spring 2006)
“On January 25, Hamas candidates won 74 seats in the PA’s 132-member parliament, where they will be joined by four Hamas-backed ‘independents’. It was a win that exceeded their fantasies.”
The New Hamas: Between resistance and participation. By Graham Usher (August 21, 2005)

The New York Review of Books
Which way for Hamas? By Nicolas Pelham and Max Rodenbeck (Vol.56, No.17, November 5, 2009). Review article of Zaki Chehab’s Inside Hamas: The Untold Story of the Militant Islamic Movement, Jeroen Gunning’s Hamas in Politics: Democracy, Religion, Violence and Paul McGeough’s Kill Khalid: The Failed Mossad Assassination of Khalid Mishal and the Rise of Hamas.

The Revolutionary Socialists
Towards a revolutionary perspective on Hamas (July 31, 2014)
“How should revolutionaries view Hamas? Mostafa Omar, a member of Egypt’s Revolutionary Socialists, considers how the left should analyze Islamist groups like Hamas.”

Socialist Review
Fatah, Hamas, Israel and the West. By John Rose (January 2007)
“In the last weeks of 2006 Palestinian Authority (PA) chairman Mahmoud Abbas and his Fatah faction finally launched their much anticipated attempted coup against the democratically elected Palestinian cabinet headed by the Islamic organisation Hamas and prime minister Ismail Haniyeh.”

Socialist View
Can Hamas ‘liberate’ the Palestinians? By Susan Fitzgerald (Spring 2006)
“The Hamas landslide in January’s long awaited Palestinian Authority (PA) elections has ousted Fatah as the dominant political force of Palestinians in the region for the first time in 40 years.”

SocialistWorker.org
What is Hamas’ alternative? (July 8, 2009)
“Haidar Eid looks at the political leadership of Hamas and its approach to the question of a ‘two-state’ solution.”

Behind the myths about Hamas (January 21, 2009)
“Deepa Kumar looks at the real history and politics of the organization the mainstream media smears as a band of fanatics and terrorists.”

Weekly Worker

History of Hamas. By Eddie Ford (Issue 610, February 2, 2006)
“An examination of Hamas’s roots, both historical and political-theological, reveals beyond doubt that its anti-Zionism and anti-imperialism is programmatically counterrevolutionary. Or, to put it more starkly, in Hamas we encounter a reactionary ideology of the oppressed.”
No to reactionary anti-Zionism (Issue522, March 31, 2004)
Eddie Ford examines the origins and world view of Hamas
Around the web: Israel’s Frankenstein (Issue 522, April 1, 2004)
“Phil Hamilton looks at the website of Hamas.”

Workers Liberty
Why isn’t Hamas the same as the Algerian FLN? (pdf). By Clive Bradley (Vol.2, No.3, December 2002)
“Islamism represents despair. It is not an alternative economic and political programme, but a retreat from having one, trusting instead in God.”

World Socialist Web Site
The political failure of the PLO and the origins of Hamas, Part 1-3. By Jean Shaoul (5- 8 July 2002)
“To date Hamas has been the main political beneficiary of the failure of Arafat’s efforts to secure a political accommodation with Israeli and US imperialism. But Hamas’ reactionary ideology, combining as it does religious obscurantism with crude anti-Semitism, offers no way out of the present impasse.”


"Hamas-flag" med den arabiske tekst til den muslimske shahadah (se Wikipedia.dk). Text: "Gud er stor og Muhammed er hans sendebud".
“Hamas-flag” med den arabiske tekst til den muslimske shahadah (se Wikipedia.dk). Text: “Gud er stor og Muhammed er hans sendebud”.

 

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