'The Ministers and their cronies off to Botany Bay, and the Dorcester men returning'. Politicians in tears on a boat, going away from the shore; free Dorchester Unionists on another boat, getting closer to the shore. At the bow is a flag reading 'FOR BOTANY BAY'. The two oarsmen guide the boat towards a ship from which is returning another boat, containing two oarsmen and the six Tolpuddle Martyrs. Among the politicians are Lord Chancellor Brougham, with two money-bags marked 'PENNY' and 'MAGAZINE', and holding a rolled-up paper reading 'CHEAP LAW'. Brougham is being comforted by Lord Melbourne. The Chancellor of the Exchequer Viscount Althorp, has a sack bearing the word 'BUDGET'. The Duke of Wellington declaims 'Never mind M-lb-n, we no doubt can get places among the Cannibals at Bottomhouse Bay. An Irishman and a Scotsman look on, while John Bull addresses the politicians. Image taken from The Political drama. [A series of caricatures.] Originally published/produced in [London] : Printed and published by G. Drake, 12, Houghton Street, Clare Market, [1834-1835]. Image taken from The Political drama. [A series of caricatures.] Held and digitised by the British Library (CC0 1.0) See more below, March 18, 1834.
'The Ministers and their cronies off to Botany Bay, and the Dorcester men returning'. Politicians in tears on a boat, going away from the shore; free Dorchester Unionists on another boat, getting closer to the shore. At the bow is a flag reading 'FOR BOTANY BAY'. The two oarsmen guide the boat towards a ship from which is returning another boat, containing two oarsmen and the six Tolpuddle Martyrs. Among the politicians are Lord Chancellor Brougham, with two money-bags marked 'PENNY' and 'MAGAZINE', and holding a rolled-up paper reading 'CHEAP LAW'. Brougham is being comforted by Lord Melbourne. The Chancellor of the Exchequer Viscount Althorp, has a sack bearing the word 'BUDGET'. The Duke of Wellington declaims 'Never mind M-lb-n, we no doubt can get places among the Cannibals at Bottomhouse Bay. An Irishman and a Scotsman look on, while John Bull addresses the politicians. Image taken from The Political drama. [A series of caricatures.] Originally published/produced in [London] : Printed and published by G. Drake, 12, Houghton Street, Clare Market, [1834-1835]. Image taken from The Political drama. [A series of caricatures.] Held and digitised by the British Library. (CC0 1.0) See more below, March 18, 1834.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1834.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

 

Februar 1834

The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union of Great Britain and Ireland grundlagt, bl.a. af Robert Owens.

Se:

Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (Wikipedia.org)

The Grand National Consolidated Trade Union: taken from H. Pelling, A History of Trade Unionism (A Web of English History)

Schools of War. Chapter three in Rob Sewell: The Cause of Labour: A History of British Trade Unionism (Well Red, 2003; online at Defence of Marxism)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen 14. maj 1771, om Robert Owens.


18. marts 1834

Seks landarbejdere fra Tolpuddle i Dorset, England, idømmes maksimumsstraf på 7 års deportation til Australien af en jury bestående af bønder, for stiftelse af den tidlige “fagforening”, Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers.
1834tulpuddlemartyrs.gif

De sejrrige protester førte til løsladelser få år efter, og blev et samlingspunkt for den tidlige arbejderbevægelse – bl.a. med massedemonstration med 100.000, og er siden blevet fejret med årlig festival/march i juli måned i landsbyen, arrangeret af det britiske LO, TUC.

Se:

18. marts 1834 – Tolpuddle martyrerne (Arbejderen, 18. marts 2010)

Tolpuddlemartyrene (Wikipedia.no). Norsk intro-artikel.

Tolpuddle Martyrs (Wikipedia.org)

Tolpuddle Martyrs Museum: website of Tolpuddle Martyrs’ Museum and Festival Website

The Tulpuddle Martyrs (A Web of English History)

Humble petition or militant action? By Mike Macnair (Weekly Worker, Issue 826, July 15, 2010)

The Tolpuddle Martyrs: trade unions and the state. By David Brandon (Socialist Appeal, 13 May 2008)

Tolpuddle and Swing: The flea and the elephant (Bristol Radical History Group, May 2009)

Meeting of the trade unionists in Copenhagen Fields, April 21, 1834, for the purpose of carrying a petition to the King for a remission of the sentence passed on the Dorchester labourers. Black and white negative on glass plate negative. Photo: Percy Benzie Abery (1876–1948), photographer. (CC0 1.0).
Meeting of the trade unionists in Copenhagen Fields, April 21, 1834, for the purpose of carrying a petition to the King for a remission of the sentence passed on the Dorchester labourers. Black and white negative on glass plate negative. Photo: Percy Benzie Abery (1876–1948), photographer. (CC0 1.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

 

Tolpuddle Martyrs Mural. Artist: Dave Bangs, 1984. Depicting the 1834 march to Westminster to petition for the pardon of the six Dorset farm labourers who were 'guilty' of, effectively, joining a trade union. Exterior wall in Edward Square, Copenhagen Street, London Borough of Islington. Photo by George Rex in July 2013. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).
Tolpuddle Martyrs Mural. Artist: Dave Bangs, 1984. Depicting the 1834 march to Westminster to petition for the pardon of the six Dorset farm labourers who were ‘guilty’ of, effectively, joining a trade union. Exterior wall in Edward Square, Copenhagen Street, London Borough of Islington. Photo by George Rex in July 2013. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Source: flickr.com.

 

24. marts 1834

Portrait of William Morris, aged 53. First published 1899 (photo c. 1887) in J. W. Mackail The Life of William Morris in two volumes, London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green and Co., 1899. Photo: Frederick Hollyer (1838–1933). Public Domain.
Portrait of William Morris, aged 53. First published 1899 (photo c. 1887) in J. W. Mackail The Life of William Morris in two volumes, London, New York and Bombay: Longmans, Green and Co., 1899. Photo: Frederick Hollyer (1838–1933). Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Den engelske socialist, designer og digter William Morris fødes i London (dør 3. oktober 1896 i Kelmscott House, Oxfordshire).

Leksikalt/encyclopidia:

Sites:

Detail of Woodpecker tapestry designed by William Morris. Date: 1885. Design: William Morris (1834–1896). Public Domain.
Detail of Woodpecker tapestry designed by William Morris. Date: 1885. Design: William Morris (1834–1896). Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons

William Morris Internet Archive (Marxists Internet Archive). With Biography (with links to articles on Morris on MIA + external links), Chronology, Journalism, Photos and Works.
Including: A Dream of John Ball (1886) + News From Nowhere (1890) (+ MIA introduction) + Art and Socialism (1884) (+ introduction: Morris and socialism (International Socialism, No.10, 1962).

The William Morris Society (site). “Founded in 1971, the William Morris Society in the United States is a group of scholars and enthusiasts brought together in fellowship by our shared interest in the life and works of the nineteenth-century writer, designer, and political thinker William Morris.”

William Morris – Literary Works: A Selected List (The Victorian Web): Literary Works, Online Texts of Morris’ Literary Works and Visual Arts.

Alfabet designet af William Morris.
Alfabet designet af William Morris.

 

Detail of Art Needlework embroidery "Artichoke" in wool on linen. Date: 1890. Design: William Morris (1834–1896) Public Domain.
Detail of Art Needlework embroidery “Artichoke” in wool on linen. Date: 1890. Design: William Morris (1834–1896) Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Artikler (på dansk):

William Morris – designer, forfatter og socialist. Af John Poulsen (Kommunist, nr.4, 2019). “En lille del af al den flid kan nu ses på Nivågårds udstilling Al magt til skønheden, som er den første Morris-udstilling i Danmark.” (slutter 16.6.2019).

Udviklingens eller moralens realisme: om fremskridtet i Edward Bellamys og William Morris socialutopier (pdf). Af Torben Hviid Nielsen (Årbog for Arbejderbevægelsens historie, nr. 16, 1986, side 57-82). “Det fremskridt for civilisationen, som for Bellamy var fælles for kapitalismen og socialismen, var for Morris samfundets ødelæggelse …”. With summary.

William Morris og Hans Betydning: en Leventsskildring. Af Uffe Birkedal (Simon Bernsteens Forlag, 1908, 29 sider; online på The William Morris Society in the United States).

Articles (in English):

William Morris’s anti-imperialism (Verso, Blog, 5 November 2020). “William Morris is today remembered mainly for his designs. But, during his life he was one a prolific political journalist and socialist activist. Here, Peter Halton argues for the enduring relevance of his anti-imperialist writings.”

How William Morris became a socialist. By Benjamin Schacht (Jacobin, December 4, 2020). Review of How I Became a Socialist by William Morris, edited by Owen Holland (Verso Books, 2020, 224 p.). “The critique of capitalism was central to William Morris’s vision of an arts and crafts movement in the Victorian era. Against the alienation and exploitation of a rapacious industrialism, he advocated for a conception of art capable of restoring creativity to everyday life.”

William Morris: father of socialist ecology. By Gabriel Polley (Counterfire, September 25, 2019). “William Morris is one of the greatest environmentalists of the socialist tradition and his work becomes more relevant by the day.”

Special issue on William Morris (Socialist Studies, Vol.13, No.1, Spring 2018, 81 p.). “For those who were influenced by Morris in the past, our hope is that this reengages you with his radical contributions in the context of contemporary capitalist society – perhaps one that in many ways has not changed significantly from Morris’ own time. For those who are new to Morris, our hope is that this encourages you to find out more and draw new insights from historical radicalism.”

William Morris’s romantic revolutionary ideal. By John Bellamy Foster (Journal of William Morris Studies, Vol.22, No.2, 2017, p.17-35; online at Johnbellamyfoster.org). “William Morris’s celebrated utopian romance News from Nowhere or An Epoch of Rest (1890) constituted his most singular attempt to present a revolutionary ideal aimed at inspiring a ‘movement towards Socialism’ in his day.”

Art for the people. By Jim Horton (Socialism Today, Issue 184, December/January 2014/15). Review of Anarchy & Beauty: William Morris and his legacy, 1860-1960, National Portrait Gallery: “It provides a good introduction to the various strands of William Morris’s work and life, touching on his ideology and political activities.”

William Morris’s socialism. By Siobhan Brown (Socialist Review, Issue 375, December 2012). “For many, William Morris is best known as a designer and artist – his patterns turned into wallpapers, his drawings into beautiful yet functional furniture. But Morris was much more than just a craftsman: he was a poet, storyteller and socialist. ”

Debunking the ‘Menshevik myth’: William Morris and revolutionary politics. By Graham Milner (Links: Journal of Socialist Renewal, May 2010). “This essay will look at the practice and theory of Morris as a Marxist, by examining briefly the genesis of his world outlook, his involvement as a political activist in the nascent socialist movement of the 1880s and 1890s in Britain, and by attempting to analyse the character of his contribution to Marxist and socialist theory.”

William Morris: Victorian artist and revolutionary. By Hassan Mahamdallie (Socialist Worker, Issue 2183, 9 January 2010). “Famous for his art, William Morris’s commitment to socialism and struggle is less well known.”

Socialist by design. By Chris Nineham (Socialist Review, Issue 196, April 1996). “William Morris, who died 100 years ago, was an artist, a poet, a lecturer and a pamphleteer. But he was also a Marxist, a revolutionary socialist and a political agitator, as Chris Nineham explains.”

A Marxist for our time: William Morris. By Paul Hampton (Workers Liberty, 16 October 2008). “The Morris that has most contemporary relevance is the man who shortly before his 50th birthday became an active revolutionary socialist and remained so to the end of his tumultuous life. Morris’s Marxism and his prescient views on socialist ecology are the subjects of this appreciation.”

William Morris and revolutionary Marxism: crossing the ‘river of fire’. By Hassan Mahamdallie (International Socialism, Issue 71, June 1996, p.57-98). “Morris has often been caricatured as a dreamer, a utopian who had little to say about how this new society was to come about. A brief look at his work from 1884 onwards rebuts that view entirely. Central to Morris’s understanding of socialism was the cast iron belief in revolutionary organisation.”

William Morris: The Man and The Myth. By R. Page Arnot (Lawrence and Wishart, 1964, 131 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive). See review by Adam Buick: William Morris as a socialist (Socialist Standard, No.727, March 1965)

William Morris. By E.P. Thompson (Marxists Internet Archive). A lecture to the Williams Morris Society, 1959. First published in Persons and Polemics, Historical Essays by E.P. Thompson (Merlin Press, 1994, p.66-76). “But Morris was one of our greatest men, because he was a great revolutionary, a profoundly cultured and humane revolutionary, but not the less a revolutionary for this reason. Moreover, he was a man working for practical revolution.”

William Morris and the moral issues today. By E.P. Thompson (Arena, Vol.2, No.8, June-July 1951). A speech at a conference organised by the National Cultural Committee of the Communist Party of Great Britain in London on 29 April 1951.

William Morris (March 24, 1834–October 3, 1896). By Hal Draper (Socialist Appeal, Vol.3, No.49, 11 July 1939). “Yet, at the height of his career, Morris astonished his friends and ‘the public’ by casting his lot with a small obscure political group and throwing his enormous energies, as well as his wealth and reputation, into their work. This group was the pioneer organization of the British Marxists, the Social Democratic Federation.”

“William Morris”. By Karl Kautsky (1896). With intro by Rida Vaquas (Prometeus, Autumn  2020). “While the death of William Morris signified a deep personal loss, Kautsky concerned himself with demonstrating the depth of the political loss. … take stock of the growth of the English socialist movement … it presents an interesting perspective into how Kautsky understood advances of the socialist movement to happen and weaknesses in that view.”

Literature: 

William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary. By E. P. Thompson. Foreword by Peter Linebaugh (Merlin Press, 2011, 825 p.; 1955-edition online at Libcom.org). Reviews:
Book of a lifetime: William Morris: Romantic to …. By Sheila Rowbotham (Independent, 7 May 2010).
William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary, part 1+2. By Andrea Gibbon (Blog: Books, Labour, Strugle & Movement, October 11, 2014). With Thompson, Morris et al quotations.


 

23. december 1834

Den engelske demograf og økonom Robert Malthus dør i Heleybury, Herford. (Født 13. februar 1766, se denne)


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