NATO bomber Serbien, se nedenfor 22. marts. KIlde:
NATO bomber Serbien, se nedenfor 22. marts. KIlde:
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Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1999.

Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.


Iris Murdoch. Source:
Iris Murdoch. Source:

8. februar 1999

Forfatteren Iris Murdoch dør i Oxford, England (født 15. juni 1919 i Dublin, Irland).





15. februar 1999

1999abdul.jpgDen kurdiske leder af PKK, Abdullah Öcalan, fanges i Kenya, dødsdømmes i Tyrkiet 29. september 1999. Dommen blev senere ændret til livsstidsfængsel.

På dansk:

Abdullah Öcalan i tyrkisk fængsel. Af Rasmus m.fl. fra IFs Kurdistangruppe (Gaia, nr.25, sommer 1999). “Den 15. februar vågnede verden op til nyheden om at Abdullah Öcalan var blevet kidnappet fra Nairobi i Kenya af tyrkiske agenter, sandsynligvis hjulpet af CIA, Mossad – og den græske regering.”

Öcalan i vores hjerter. Af Irene Clausen (Gaia, nr.23, vinter 1998). “For hvad mener kurderne når de svarer: Apo er i vores hjerter, Apo er vores frihedskamp?”

Tiden er kommet. Af Søren Berggreen Toft og Mads Staghøj (, 28. marts 2015). Longread (4 kapitler): “Da Kobane blev belejret af Islamisk Stat, rejste kurdere i Danmark og Europa sig og samledes om kærligheden til den fængslede leder Abdullah Öcalan.” Kræver abonnement.

In English:

The show trial of Abdullah Öcalan in Turkey: what lies behind the behaviour of the PKK leader? By Justus Leicht and Peter Schwarz (World Socialist Web Site, 8 June 1999). “Ocalan astonished both his supporters and opponents with his remorseful attitude.”

Abdullah Öcalan’s abduction (, 1 March 1999). “The abduction of the Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK) leader Abdullah Ocalan by Turkish secret services has sparked furious mass protests by Kurds and more than ever internationalised the Kurdish question.”

The arrest of Öcalan and the plight of the Kurdish people. By Ted Grant and Fernando D’Alessandro (In Defence of Marxism, 26 February 1999). “Here we reproduce our Marxist analysis of the Kurdish question published at that time.”

The New-Old PKK. By Alex de Jong (Jacobin: Reason in Revolt, March 18, 2016). “The PKK has continued to struggle for justice in Kurdistan. But its democratic transformation leaves much to be desired.”

Stalinist caterpillar into libertarian butterfly? – the evolving ideology of the PKK. By Alex de Jong (International Viewpoint, 11 March 2015). “The focus is on the movement’s ’official’ ideology as written down in statements of Öcalan and documents of the PKK.”

Liberating Life: Woman’s Revolution (pdf). By Abdullah Öcalan (International Initiative, 2014, 63 p.). From the site

Se også / see also på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

  • Tidslinjen: 27. november 1978, om PKK (Kurdistans Arbejderparti).
  • Tidslinjen: 29. juni 2014, om IS/ISIS og deres angreb på irakisk Kurdistan.
  • Tidslinjen: 16. september 2014, om belejringen af den kurdiske by Kobane i det nordlige Syrien.
  • Linkboxen: Kurdistan, om Roj-Tv og den kurdiske kamp.
Kort over kurdiske områder. Kilde:
Kort over kurdiske områder. Kilde:

Other sources:

Peace in Kurdistan (site). Campaign for a peaceful solution of the Kurdish question.

Krig og revolution i Kurdistan. Af Alfred Lang (Autonom Infoservice, 26. marts 2018). “Kurdernes frihedskamp er en broget historie præget af sejre og nederlag.”

Negri, Harvey, Graeber, Wallerstein, Holloway, the cult of Abdullah Ocalan and the Rojava Revolution (, May 2, 2015). “In April 2015, a conference was held in Hamburg ‘to introduce the thoughts of the Kurdish leader, Abdullah Ocalan, to the international community.”

Kurdisk håb i det arabiske oprør. Af Svend Vestergaard Jensen (Socialistisk Information, 28. januar 2012). “Forandringerne i den arabiske verden sker ikke blot inden for de enkelte statsdannelser, men også blandt nationaliteter på tværs. Det er kurderne et godt eksempel på.”

Dances with Wolves: Turkey and the Kurds. By Ron Margulies (International Socialism, Issue 145, Winter 2015). “Over the same period the PKK succeeded in turning itself into more than a guerrilla organisation. It set up countless organisations and became influential in all walks of Kurdish life, including the large Kurdish diaspora in Western Europe.”

Will there be an independent Kurdistan? By Alastair Stephens (Counterfire, November 1, 2014). “A Kurdish state would raise the hopes of millions of Kurds, change the geopolitics of the region and challenge the integrity of the existing states.”

The long struggle of the Kurds. By Memet Uludag (Irish Marxist Review, Vol.2, No.8, 2013, p.22-36). “As one of the major political conflicts in the Middle-East, the Kurdish struggle has dominated the recent history of the region, spreading across the modern day countries of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran; and yet, little is known about the origins or the historical-political journey of the Kurds.”

The Kurdish question in Syria: a litmus test. By Alastair Stephens (Counterfire, 23 September 2012). “As civil war, imperial intervention and sectarianism threaten to undermine the Syrian uprising the Kurds, up until now a lesser actor, appear to be moving towards centre stage.”

Only through socialism (Weekly Worker, Issue 927, August 16, 2012) + Confusion of libertarian socialism (Issue 928, September 6, 2012) + Rejection of Marxism (Issue 929, September 13, 2012) + The HDK enigma (Issue 930, September 20, 2012) + Nationalism from another angle (Issue 931, September 27, 2012). “Esen Uslu [looks] at the attitude of the left in Turkey to the Kurdish national question.”

Syrian Kurdish cards. By Denise Natali (Middle East Report Online, March 20, 2012). “Upheaval in Syria has given Kurdish groups new opportunities to advance their nationalist agendas while serving as proxies for neighboring states.”

Historical, political issues in the Turkish-Kurd conflict: Bush gives green light for Turkey to attack PKK in Iraq. By the editorial board (World Socialist Web Site, 10 November 2007).

The betrayal of the Kurds. By Phil Gasper (International Socialist Review, Issue 28, March-April 2003). “The Bush administration’s callous abandonment of the Kurds will come as no surprise to anyone familiar with the long history of broken promises by both the United States and Britain.”

Major Kurdish organizations in Iraq. By Martin Van Bruinessen (Middle East Report, Issue 141, July-August 1986)


Liberating Life: Woman’s Revolution (pdf). By Abdullah Öcalan. (Internaikonal initiavie Edition, 64 p.). “Öcalan coined several slogans like ‘A country can’t be free unless the women are free’, thereby redefining national liberation as first and foremost the liberation of women …” From the site


16. februar 1999

Den svenske musiker Bjørn Afzelius dør (født 27. januar 1947, se denne).


19. februar 1999

Højesteret erklærer i 1999 for førte gang i 150 år en lov for grundlovsstridig, den såkaldte Tvindlov.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 12. juni 1996


24. marts 1999

NATO’s bombe-krig mod Serbien starter, stopper 10. juni 1999.

The Kosovo War – 15 years on. By James B (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, April 23, 2014). “15 years ago today NATO forces began bombarding Serbia with high-tech bombs. For Blair and Clinton the Kosovo War was their ‘humanitarian’ intervention. However, as James B writes, the actuality of that conflict, and the legacy, is anything but.”

Kosovo/a Discussion (New Politics, Issue 27, Summer 1999 + Issue 28, Winter 2000). “New Politics began a discussion of the NATO war in Kosovo/a in it’s issue 27. Here we collect the original article and replies that appeared in that issue as well as some correspondence and additional articles from issue 28″:

  • Reflections on NATO and Kosovo, by Stephen R. Shalom. With Responses:
  • Kosovo: between Milosevic and NATO, by Barry Finger
  • Self-Determination and diplomacy, by Joanne Landy
  • Self-Determination without strings, by Julius Jacobson
  • Response to ‘NATO and Kosovo’, by Hanna Behrend
  • Replies by Stephen R. Shalom
  • A left-interventionist view, by Manuela Dobos
  • Kosovo, justice, and humanitarianism, by Stephen R. Shalom
  • Self-Determination, not intervention, by Joanne Landy

NATO’s Road to War and Ruin. By the editors (Against the Current, Issue 80, May-June 1999). “The truly agonizing dilemma that faces the peace movement here must be openly confronted, not papered over by fine-sounding phrases which, albeit unintentionally, only provide cover for the ethnic-cleansing-bordering-on-genocide practice of Slobodan Milosevic and the gangsters allied to him.”

A Dialogue on NATO’s War (Against the Current, Issue 81, July-August 1999). “In the following pages we present several responses provoked by our editorial”:

London antiwar protest Sunday, April 11th 1999
London antiwar protest Sunday, April 11th 1999.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


6. april 1999

Venstrefløjsforfatteren, oversætteren, redaktøren Erik Thygesen dør i Kbh. (født i Nyborg 12. september 1941, se denne).


20. april 1999

Columbine High, 1999
Columbine High, 1999

En af de største skolemassakre i USA (nr. 4 hvad antal af ofre angår) da 2 gymnasieelever kl. 11,14 går ind i kantinen og starter massakren, i alt dræber de 13 personer og sig selv, på Columbine High School i en forstad til Denver, Colerado.


List of school shootings in the United States (

Se på Socialistisk Biibliotek:

Linkboxen: Columbine High, 1999


4. august 1999

Foreningen Dokumentationscenter mod Historieforfalskning (DmH) dannes. Formålet er: “… påvise(r) mangler og fejl i offentliggjorte publikationer vedrørende Danmarks historie i det 20. århundrede.” [især besættelsestiden].1999dokumentationscenter.gif


Dokumentationscenter mod Historieforfalskning (Site; online på Internet Archive WayBackMachine, 2008).

De forrådte: Tyske Hitlerflygtninge i Danmark. Af Leif Larsen og Thomas Clausen (Gyldendal, 1997, 210 s.; online på Internet Archive WayBackMachine).


27. august 1999


Ærkebiskop Hélder Câmara dør i Olinda, Brasilien (født 7.2.1909). Fik den såkaldte Folkets Nobelpris 1974.


Camara, Helder (

Se også:

Folkets Fredspris (

Theodore Edwards & Rev. Blase Bonpane: Marxism and Christianity: Are They Compatible? A Debate (International Socialist Review, Vol.31 No.1, January-February 1970, pp.1-21.; on Marxists Internet Archive)

30. august 1999

Et flertal på 78,5 stemmer for Østtimors uafhængighed efter 24 års indonesisk besættelse. Medfører blodig indonesisk hævnaktion (op 1/3 af befolkningen menes myrdet) indtil Østtimor 19 maj 2002 blev verdens selvstændige stat nr. 192..


Østtimor (

Østtimor (Den

Østtimor ( m. links til større engelske artikel.

Østtimorkomiteen (

Indonesian occupation of East Timor (

East Timor: The struggle for full independence – 10 years on. By Mericio Akara (Green Left Weekly, Issue 812, 30 September 2009)

Ten years since East Timor’s independence vote. By Patrick O’Connor (World Socialist Web Site, 31 August 2009)

East Timor retrospective. By Noam Chomsky (Le Monde Diplomatique, October 1999)

The demography og genocide in South East Asia: The death tolls in Cambodia, 1975-79,
and East Timor, 1975-80. By Ben Kiernan (pdf) (Critical Asia Studies, Vol.35, No 4, 2003, p.585-597)


4. oktober 1999

Julius K. Nyerere dør i London (født marts 1922, Butiama, Tanganika). Første leder i Tanzania og i dannelsen af OAS.

Julius K. Nyerere
Julius K. Nyerere



30. november 1999


Den antikapitalistiske bevægelse fødes gennem 5 dages protester mod WTO-Verdenshandelsorganiksationens møde i Seattle, hvor det lykkedes at lukke mødet.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: Battle of Seattle, 1999

2. december 1999

Hugo Chávez blir præsident i Venezuela. (Født 28.7.1954 i Sababeta, Venezuela, dør 5. marts 2013 i Caracas).

Hugo Chavez med maleri af Simon Bolivar i baggrunden. Kilde:
Hugo Chavez med maleri af Simon Bolivar i baggrunden. Kilde:


Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


31. december 1999

Panama overtager kontrollen over Panamakanalen, som USA har kontrolleret i 100 år




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