"Nellike-revolutionen" i Portugal, se nedenfor 25. april 1974

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1974.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

25. april 1974

1974portugal.jpgNellikerevolutionen i Portugal udløser revolutionære tilstande i landet (til november 1975).

Leksika:

Nellikerevolutionen (Denstoredanske.dk)

Carnation Revolution (Wikipedia.org)

Skandinaviske artikler :

Revolutionært forår i Portugal: en personlig beretning. Af Alfred Lang (Autonom Infoservice, 20. april 2011; ajourført 8. april 2017)

Nellikerne der ikke sprang ud. Af Jørgen Lund (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr.15, december 1985, s.6). “… statsmagten og parlamentarismen var et pålideligt instrument for den herskende klasse.”

Portugal: Læren af den 25. november (1975). Af Tony Cliff og Chris Harman (Marxisme Online)

Portugal ved korsvejen (uddrag) (1975). Af Tony Cliff (Marxisme Online)

Portugal – reform eller revolution: en analys av utvecklingen första året efter kuppen 25 april 1974 till Vasco Goncalves fall den 30 august 1975 (pdf). Av Svengöran Dahl och Göran Wiklander (Socinform, 1975, 263 sider; online på Marxistarkiv.se)

Temaer på Marxistarkiv.se:
Tidskriften Fjärde Internationalen om Portugal (pdf) (1974-1976, 46 sider)
Tidskriften Kommunist om Portugal (pdf) (1976, 59 sider)
Tidskriften Zenit om omvälvningarna i Portugal (pdf) (1975-1976, 46 sider)

Litteratur på dansk:

Portugal: militærbevægelse og klassekamp. Af Arno Münster. Efterskrift af Ralf Pittelkow (side 145-275) (Politisk Revy, 1975, 275 sider)

Portugal: på vej mod socialismen? Redigeret af KF’s Portugalgruppe i Århus (Modtryk, 1975, 347 sider)

Nellikerevolutionen – Portugal 1974-75. Af Peter Robinson (Internationale Socialisters Forlag, 1988, 46 sider; online på Marxisme Online) (Revolutioner i vores tid, 3)

In English:

Fragmented power: Portugal in revolution, 1974-1975. By Doug Enaa Greene (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, February 11, 2018). “Why did the Carnation Revolution fail? Despite its impressive demonstrations and energy, the revolutionary left remained weak. They were also divided between multiple groups with divergent and contradictory strategies.”
1974Povo_mfa.jpg

The PCP in the Portuguese Revolution 1974-5: crisis, state and revolution. By Raquel Varela (International Socialism, Issue 157, Winter 2018, p.129-139). ” I argue here that the revolution happened despite the party, not because of it.”

40 years since Portugal’s ‘Carnation Revolution’ (Socialist Worker, No.3400, 22 April 2014). “Sadie Robinson looks at a struggle that put workers’ power on the agenda.”

Portugal: The Carnation Revolution remembered (Red Pepper, April 2014). “Dick Barbor-Might looks back on a coup against a dictator that sparked a wider revolutionary upsurge.”

Portugal: 1974-5. By Bob Light (International Socialism, Issue 142, Spring 2014; online only). “It is arguably the closest we have come to real workers’ power since the Spanish Revolution in 1936.”

Forty years later: the grandeur and the limits of the Portuguese Revolution. By Ugo Palheta (International Viewpoint, No.471, April 2014). “The last example of a popular and radical uprising in western Europe, it brought down the oldest dictatorship on the continent …”

40 years after the Carnation Revolution. By Jorge Costa (International Viewpoint, No.471, April 2014). “… the experience … continues to be an absolutely fundamental lesson about the nature of the power of the bourgeoisie, and its ability to survive, adapt and restructure.”

30 years since Portugal’s revolution. By David Hayes (Socialist Worker, No.1898, 24 April 2004). “Eyewitness: ‘I went to factories under workers’ control.”

Revolution in Portugal (Socialism Today, No.82, April 2004). “Manny Thain looks back at these tumultuous events, when the dictatorship collapsed.”

Portugal 1974-75: The forgotten dream (pdf). By Peter Robinson (Socialist History Society, 1999, 30 p.) (Socialist History Occasional Papers Series, 9). “From October 1975 until the following June I worked for
the IS as a political organiser, based in Lisbon … It was an extraordinary period, one that still needs to be studied and celebrated.”

Social Democracy and the Portuguese ‘revolution’. By Ian Birchall (International Socialism, No.6, Autumn 1979, p.71–84). “A revolutionary movement that underestimates the power of reformism will pay a heavy price for it.”

Portugal: The Impossible Revolution. By Phil Mailer. With a foreword by Maurice Brinton (London, Solidarity, 1977, 400 p.; online at Libcom.org). “It is the story of what happened in Portugal 1974-1975 – as seen and felt by a deeply committed participant.”

Documents and articles on Portugal (pdf) (Socialist Workers Party (US)/Internal Information Bulletin, No.4, March 1976, 65 p.). With a critique of the British International Socialists.

Portugal: the latest phase. By Chris Harman (International Socialism, No.83, November 1975, p.6-9)

Special issue: Portugal at the crossroads. By Tony Cliff (International Socialism, No.81/82, September 1975, 48 p.). With Chronology of events.

Revolution and counter revolution in Portugal. By Nahuel Moreno (Supplement to the July-August 1975 issue of Revista de América, Buenos Aires; online at Marxists Internet Archive). See also response by Gus Horowitz: The differences over Portugal (May 2, 1976)

The views of a PRP Leader (International Socialism, No.80, July/August 1975, p.19-20). “… a shortened version of the contribution made by a leading member of the PRP (Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat) of Portugal.”

Communist Party of Portugal (PCP) (Marxists Internet Archive; Comintern Archive). Articles from PCP 1974.

Perspective for the Portuguese Revolution. By Albert Weisbord (La Parola del Popolo, May-June 1974; online at Marxists Internet Archive))

Portugal: the first six months. By Chris Harman (International Socialism, No.72, October 1974, p.5-6)

History of the 1974 Revolution in Portugal (Socialist Party, Australia) https://www.socialistpartyaustralia.org/archives/6147

Se også:

Tidslinjen 25. november 1975 om afslutningen af den revolutinære periode. (Socialistisk Bibliotek)

Luso-Anomalies. By Daniel Finn (New Left Review, Issue 106, July-August 2017, p.5-32). “How and why has Portugal differed from Spain since the downfall of their respective dictatorships in the mid 70s?”

Ubu saved from drowning: worker insurgency and statist containment in Portugal and Spain, 1974-1977. By Loren Goldner (Queequeg Publications, 2000, 113 p.; online at Libcom.org)


9. maj 1974

Majstrejkerne i Danmark starter.

Ud med Hartling/Fogh: fra 1974 til i dag. Af Hans Erik Madsen (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr.224, 4. februar 2004)
Litteratur:

Krisen, majstrejkerne og arbejdsløsheden: en samling artikler om klassekampens udvikling i Danmark: fra politisk revy november 1973 til november 1974 (Politisk Revy, 1974, 78 sider)

Majstrejkerne 1974. Af Jan Storgaard (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr. 103, maj 1994)

Se også:

Den københavnske arbejderopposition og venstregrupperne. Af Poul Petersen og Kim Thygesen (Proletar! nr. 9, august 1974, s.9-13; online på Marxisme Online)


24. maj 1974

Amerikanske jazzpianist Edward Kennedy Ellington – Duke – dør i New York (født 29.4.1899).
“Put it this way: Jazz is a good barometer of freedom; In its beginnings, the United States of America spawned certain ideals of freedom and independence through which, eventually, jazz was evolved, and the music is so free that man people say it is the only unhampered, unhindered expression of complete freedom yet produced in this country.” (‘It don’t mean a thing if it ain’t got that swing’).

Se:

Duke Ellington (Wikipedia.org)

Band of gold. By Martin Smith (Socialist Review, Issue 228, March 1999)


9. juni 1974 

Digteren Miguel Asturias dør i Madrid (født 19.10.1899 i Guatemala City).
Nobels litteraturpris i 1967, Leninprisen i 1966.

Se:

Miguel Ãngel Asturias (Leksikon.org).

Miguel Angel Asturias – Bibliographical (Nobelprize.org)

Miguel Angel Asturias (1899-1974) (Democracy & Socialism; incl. short video)


29. juni 1974 

Den tyske forfatter Erich Kästner dør i München (født 23.2.1899).

Se:

Erich Kästner (Wikipedia.de) med links til bl.a. (meget korte!) danske og til engelske artikel.

Erich Kästner (Denstoredanske.dk)


23. juli 1974

Den græske militærjunta tvinges til at gå af.


8. august 1974

USAs præsident Nixon må trække sig fra embedet pga Watergade-skandalen. Afløses af vicepræcident Gerald Ford (1973–1974)

Se:

Tidslinjen 17. juni 1972 (Socialistisk Bibliotek)


21. august 1974

Den amerikanske socialist og grundlægger af den trotskistiske bevægelse i USA, James P. Cannon dør i (født Rosedale, Kansas, 11. februar 1890, se denne)


24. august 1974

Første kvindefestival i Fælledparken i København – “Ingen kvindekamp uden klassekamp“.
1975festival.jpg


30. oktober 1974

Tidligere fremtrædende kommunist, Komintern-agent og formand for Søfyrbøderne, Richard Jensen, dør (født 1894).

Se:

Richard Jensen (Leksikon.org)


2. november 1974

Dannerhuset i København besættes og omdannes til kvindekrisecenter.

Billedresultat for dannerhuset



13. november 1974
1974silkwood.jpg

Karen Silkwood, amerikansk fagforeningsaktivist beskæftigede sig med sikkerheds- og arbejdsforhold på a-kraft-værk, da hun døde under mistænkelige omstændigheder i 1974.

Se:

Karen Silkwood (Wikipedia.org)

Karen Silkwood remembered. By Sharyn Jenkins (Green Left Weekly, Issue 458, 1 August 2001)

Silkwood (Wikipedia.org). Om 1983-filmen.



13. november 1974

I FNs generalforsamling i New York taler for første gang en indbudt taler, der ikke repræsenterede nogen stat, da Yassir Arafat, formand for PLO, holder den såkaldte olivengren-tale.

1974arafat-at-un-74.jpg
Se:

Yasser Arafat’s 1974 UN General Assembly speech (Wikisource)

Yasser Arafat speech at the UN (United Nations) in 1974 (YouTube.com, 10 min.)

Se også:

Tidslinjen 24. august 1929 om Yassir Arafat. (Socialistisk Bibliotek).

Palæstinensisk uenighed om statsproklamation i FN (Autonom Infoservice, 14. september 2011)

Tags: International recognition of Palestinian state (The Electronic Intifada)

The question of Palestine in miniature. By the Editors (Middle East Report Online, September 16, 2011)

At the UN, the funeral of the two-state solution. By Ilan Pappe (The Electronic Intifada, 12 September 2011)

September [UN] initiative: Palestinian national rights are point of origin. By Nassar Ibrahim (Alternative Information Center, 31 August 2011)

Se også:

Palæstina-Danmark, samme kamp, kap. 8, – i: Karen Steller Bjerregaard: ”Et undertrykt folk har altid ret” – Solidaritet med den 3. verden i 1960’ernes og 1970’ernes Danmark (pdf-fil) (Ph.d.-afhandling ved Institut for kultur og identitet, RUC 2010, 499 sider). Scroll ned til side 379-456.

Palestinian nationalism and the Arab revolution. By Phil Marshall (International Socialism, Issue 33, Autumn 1986, p.34-58; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

Om Palæstina/Israel: Emneliste-oversigt med samling af emnelister, linkboxe mm. om Palæstina/Israel og Mellemøsten på Socialistisk Bibliotek.



21. november 1974

Bombeattentater på to pubber i Birmingham koster 20 liv. En gruppe irere på 6 bliver anholdt og fængslet indtil 1991 på grundalg af falske anklager.

Se:

Birminham Six (Denstoredanske.dk)

Birmingham Six (Wikipedia.org)

Se også:

Tidslinjen 28. oktober 1989 om Guilford Four. (Socialistisk Bibliotek)


8. december 1974

Folkeafstemning i Grækenland afskaffer monarkiet, med 69 mod 31%.

Se:

Greek Public referendum 1974 (Wikipedia.org)

Billedresultat for greece 1974 monarchyFarvel til snylterne – i Grækenland.


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