Oliemaleri af den
Oliemaleri af den "Ottende brigades angreb ved Dybbøl 18. april 1864", 1864. Malet af Vilhelm Rosenstand (1838–1915). Billedet er placeret på Det Nationalhistoriske Museum i Frederiksborg Slot. Foto: Eget fotografiske reproduction af et udløbet kunstværk. Public Domain.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1864.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

Bladliste

Nye blade 1864:

Folkebladet

Se:

Arbejderhistorisk bladliste, under året 1864.


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1. februar 1864

Krigen i 1864, eller 2. Slesvigske Krig starter (varer til 1. juli 1864).

Se links:

Anden Slesvigske Krig 1864 – Forhistorie, forløb og følger. Af Inge Adriansen og Jens Ole Christensen (Sønderborg Slot/Tøjhusmuseet; på sitet Fredericiahistorie.dk; pdf, 44 sider)

Professor: Det er ok at omskrive historien om 1864 (Videnskab.dk, 12. oktober 2014). Med links til 10 andre artikler på sitet.

1864 og det danske demokrati. Af Anders Lundkvist (Modkraft.dk/Kontradoxa, 8. december 2014). “Diskussionen om 1864 burde også handle om kampen om demokratiet forud for nederlaget. Og den politiske chok-behandling derefter.”

Slaget ved Dybbøl 18. april 1864. Af Jens Wendel-Hansen (Danmarkshistorien.dk, 15. juni 2015)

Litteratur:

Mennesker i krigen 1864. Af Erik Ingemann Sørensen (Historie-online.dk). Anmeldelse af Jens Ahlers (red.): Mennesker i krigen 1864 – Menschen im Krieg (Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesbibliothek & Museum Sønderjylland, 2014, 360 sider) + 1864. Af Erik Ingemann Sørensen (Historie-online.dk). Anmeldelse af Jakob Kidde Sauntved og Jakob Eberhardts bog (Jyllands-Postens Forlag, 2007, 240 sider)

Kampen om 1864. Af Georg Metz (Information.dk, 26. april 2014). Anmeldelse af Rasmus Glenthøj: 1864: sønner af de slagne (Gad, 2014, 574 sider) + Johan Peter Noack: Da Danmark blev Danmark: fortællinger af forhistorien til 1864 (Gyldendal, 2014, 356 sider)

Dommedag Als: 29. juni 1864. Af Erik Ingemann Sørensen (Historie-online.dk, 2010). Anmeldelse af Tom Buk-Swientys bog (Gyldendal, 2010, 496 sider)

Slagtebænk Dybbøl: 18. april 1864. Af Erik Ingemann Sørensen (Historie-online.dk, 2008). Anmeldelse af Tom Buk-Swientys bog (Gyldendal, 2008, 400 sider)

Den tomme stat: angst og ansvar i dansk politik 1848-1864. Af Erik Helmer Pedersen (Historie-online.dk, 2011). Anmeldelse af Hans Vammens bog (Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2011, 388 sider)

1864 – da Europa gik af lave. Af Johs. Nielsen (Odense Universitetsforlag, 1987, 443 sider)

Se også:

“… At lade hæren marchere, heste trampe og kanoner buldre”: Engels og Marx om den dansk-tyske krig i 1864 (pdf). Af Palle Rasmussen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, april 2012, s.66-83)

Friedrich Engels om Danmark og den danske krig: Breve og artikler 1846-1867 (På det jævne, på det jævne. Det danske borgerskabs vankelmodige vej til magten. Futura, 1974, s.95-104. Tillæg; online på Snylterstaten.dk)


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21. april 1864

The Anatomy Lesson of Max Weber. From left to right, assistent Sleking, J.M. Janse, J.Th. Oudemans, prof. Weber, F.A.F.C. Went, unknown observer, son of assistent Sleking. In front, an old man, known as 'the last whaler'. Oil on canvas Louis Stracké (1856–1934), painted in 1886. Photo: Source/Photographer Universiteitsmuseum Amsterdam. Public Domain.
The Anatomy Lesson of Max Weber. From left to right, assistent Sleking, J.M. Janse, J.Th. Oudemans, prof. Weber, F.A.F.C. Went, unknown observer, son of assistent Sleking. In front, an old man, known as ‘the last whaler’. Oil on canvas Louis Stracké (1856–1934), painted in 1886. Photo: Source/Photographer Universiteitsmuseum Amsterdam. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Økonomen og den banebrydende borgerlige sociolog Max Weber fødes i Erfurt, Tyskland. (Dør 14. juni 1920 i München).

Se:

On Weber’s and Habermas’ democratic theories: a reconstruction and comparison. By Sandro Segre (Logos, Vol.10. No.4, 2011). “Our first task will be to introduce the comparative literature on Weber and Habermas as thinkers of modern Parliamentary democracy.”

Anticapitalist readings of Weber’s Protestant Ethic: Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, György Lukacs, Erich Fromm. By Michael Löwy (Logos, Vol.9, No.1, 2010). “This paper will try to analyze a curious intellectual phenomena: a group of Jewish-German authors that developed, during the Weimar Republic, a radical anti-capitalist and anti-protestant argument, directly inspired by Weber’s Protestant Ethic.”

Being Max Weber. By Peter Thomas (New Left Review, Issue 41, September-October 2006). Review of Joachim Radkau, Max Weber: die Leidenschaft des Denkens (Carl Hanser Verlag, 2005, 1008 s.). “By any standards, then, this is an important work. It is also somewhat eccentric.”

Empty method man. By Chris Harman (International Socialism, Issue 105, Winter 2005). Review of Kieran Allen, Max Weber: A Critical Introduction (Pluto Press, 2004, 218 p.). “This is a very critical introduction to the theorist who is still being presented to generations of sociology students as the ‘liberal’, ‘value free’ and ‘sophisticated’ alternative to the supposed ‘economic reductionism’ of Karl Marx. As such it will be extremely useful to teachers and students alike.”

Max, Weber and the critique of capitalism: Marxism and classical sociology. By Michael Löwy (International Viewpoint, 31 August 2005). Also online at New Politics (Issue 42, Winter 2007). “Their analysis of capitalism is inseparable from a critical posture-explicit in Marx, more ambivalent in Weber. But the content and inspiration of the critique are very different.”

Weber family: ca. 1888. Max Weber (Jr.) on the right. To the left, possibly: Max Weber. Sr, Helene Weber, Max. Jr. two out of three brothers (Alfred, Arthur, Karl), then possibly sisters? Photo: Unknown. Public Domain.
Weber family: ca. 1888. Max Weber (Jr.) on the right. To the left, possibly: Max Weber. Sr, Helene Weber, Max. Jr. two out of three brothers (Alfred, Arthur, Karl), then possibly sisters? Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Litteratur:

Max Weber: Den protestantiske etik og kapitalismens ånd (Nansensgade Antikvariat, 1995, 176 sider)


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6. juli 1864

M.C. Lyngsie, mangeårig formand for Dansk Arbejds- og Specialarbejderforbund, fødes (dør 31. december 1931).

Se:

Arbejdsmændenes Fagblad udgivet af Dansk Arbejdsmandsforbund.

Lyngsie, M.C. (Leksikon.org)

M. C. Lyngsie

(Plads til os alle; Persongalleri)

M.C. Lyngsie (Gravsted.dk)

Monumenter:

Michael Christian Lyngsie (1864-1931) (Københavns Kommune). Lyngsies Plads. Lyngsie oprettede Mejeriet Enigheden på Lygten under storlockouten i 90’erne.

Se også:

“Sådan skal der tales ! Det er 1. maj 1925. Formanden for Dansk Arbejdsmands Forbund, M. C. Lyngsie, står på en talerstol og skuer ud over hundrevis af lockoutede medlemmer. Det er Nykøbing Falster, og det er sådan man holder en tale.” Se: Brandtale til kammeraterne i Nykøbing F. (Danske taler).

Tidslinjen 18. marts 1925 om storkonflikten.

Fagforeningsformand M. C. Lyngsie. Foto: Holger Damgaard (24.7.1870-15.1.1945). (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Fagforeningsformand M. C. Lyngsie. Foto: Holger Damgaard (24.7.1870-15.1.1945). (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Kilde: Europeana.eu.

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22. august 1864

Stiftelsen af Røde Kors og den første Genevekonvention.

Se links:

De hvide busser i Haderslev. Fotograf: Ukendt/Frihedsmuseets fotoarkiv/Nationalmuseet. Licens: No known rights.
De hvide busser i Haderslev. Fotograf: Ukendt/Frihedsmuseets fotoarkiv/Nationalmuseet. Licens: No known rights. Kilde: Wikimedia Commons.

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28. september 1864

Første Internationale (1864-1876) stiftes i London.
Foundation of International Working Men’s Association (First International) in London, 1864-1876.

A Picture postcard of a painting by O.G. Verejski `Marx at the IWMA meeting’ from 1962. shows Karl Marx speeking. “On 28 September 1864 the Saint Martins meeting hall in London was packed to the roof with craftsmen and workers from various countries. The proposal to establish an International Working Men’s Association met with great enthusiasm.” Marx didn’t speak at all the the founding congress. / Example of saint-worshiping Soviet style, for Marx did not speak at all at the founding meeting in 1864! For copyright reasons, we can’t show the picture, but See it at: International Institute of Social History.

Links på dansk:

Karl Marx 1864 og forsigtighedsprincippet (pdf). Af Rolf Czeskleba-Dupont (Arbejderhistorie, nr.3, 2014, s.63-81). “I efteråret 1864 prøver Marx at skrive en fælles politisk platform for Internationalen …”

Første Internationale: 150 år efter. Af Rob Sewell (Revolution, 29. september 2014). “Første internationales historiske arbejde, sammen med dets politiske program og principper, trænede arbejderklassen i proletarisk internationalisme og konsoliderede arbejderbevægelsen i en række lande.”

Karl Marx og Første Internationale. Af Camilla Holst (Socialistisk Information, 10. oktober 2011). “Marx var også en ledende kraft i et praktisk og programmatisk opbygningsarbejde gennem etableringen af Første Internationale i 1864, og videre igennem hele Internationalens levetid.”

Første Internationale i krig og fred. Af Gerd Callesen (Arbejderen, 23. december 2009). “Det nye bind giver sammen med de to foregående et væsentligt indblik i Marx` og Engels vurderinger af Internationalens udvikling og deres arbejde på dennes vegne.”

De danske socialister og Første Internationale, 1865-april 1871 (pdf). Af Jan Ingemann Sørensen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 2008, s.37-55). “I det følgende gøres der et forsøg på, at afdække flere relevante detaljer i forbindelse med de danske socialisters allerførste kontakter til Internationale.”

Karl Marx og dannelsen af 1. Internationale (pdf). Af Per Svendsen (Politica, bind 2, nr.1, 1969, s.27-31). “… i al korthed at redegøre for dannelsen af 1. Internationale og specielt Karl Marx’s rolle heri.”

Om Inauguraladressen (“indvielsestale” af Karl Marx)

Inauguraladressen for den Internationale arbejderassociation er et dokument forfattet af Karl Marx. Det publiceredes første gang 5. november 1864 i den engelske avis Bee-Hive Newspaper under rubrikken Address and provisional rules of the Working Mens International Association, established September 28, 1864, at a public meeting held at St. Martin’s Hall, Long Acre, London.

Inauguraladressen (Leksikon.org)

Membership Card
Membership Card

Inauguraladressen. Af Karl Marx (Marxisme Online)

English:

The First International is still relevant today. By Marcello Musto (Jacobin, September 28, 2020). “The International Working Men’s Association was launched in London on this day in 1864. As the ‘First International’, it cemented class solidarity across countries as a shared ideal and inspired large numbers to organize against capitalist exploitation.”

When Marx was a reformist. By David Douglass (Weekly Worker, Issue 1086, 10 December 2015). Review of René Berthier, Social Democracy and Anarchism in the International Workers Association 1864-1877 (Merlin Press, 2015, 256 p.). “This book is a credit to its author, who has thoroughly researched the available evidence on this subject.” See also Mike Macnair, Bakuninist hatchet job (Weekly Worker, Issue 1094, 18 February 2016)

Karl Marx and the First International. By Nick Rogers (The Project: A Socialist Journal, May 2015). “So what lessons should we draw from the experience of Marx and Engels in the IWMA? First, the need to engage with where the working class is actually organised …”

On the legacy of the International Working Men’s Association after 150 years (Monthly Review, Vol.66, No.11, April 2015). Interview with Marcello Musto by Vesa Oittinen.

Workers Unite! The International 150 Years Later. By George C. Comninel (Socialism & Democracy, Issue 65, Vol.28, No.2, September 2014). Review of Marcello Musto’s (ed.) book (Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, 312 p.). “Much in this anthology is surprising, some of it is moving, and all of it is valuable.” See also review by Christopher Araujo (Marx & Philosophy Review of Books, 16 February 2017)

The International after 150 years: Labor vs Capital, then and now. Edited by George C. Comninel, Marcello Musto & Victor Wallis (Socialism & Democracy, Issue 65, Vol.28, No.2, September 2014). Special issue (scroll ned).
Af indholdet:
Introduction, by Victor Wallis.
Notes on the history of the International, by Marcello Musto.
Marx and the politics of the First International, by George C. Comninel.
A common banner: Marxists and Anarchists in the First International, by Michael Löwy.

Karl Marx and the First International (Socialist Review, Issue 394, September 2014). “Christian Høgsbjerg shows how Karl Marx made a vital contribution to the IWMA and how he fought to ensure its militant trajectory.”

1864: the First International. By Michael Johnson (Solidarity, Issue 337, 24 September 2014). “Despite its relatively short life, the First International was a path-breaking attempt to unite the working-class movement at its various stages of development across the European continent.”

The First International was forged in struggle (Socialist Worker, Issue 2187, 6 February 2010). “Dan Swain looks at how socialists have organised for change globally.”

History of the Marxist internationals, Part 1: The IWA. By Louis Proyect (The Unrepentant Marxist, January 20, 2010). “The IWA was a workers international that probably was destined to have a short life, given the social and political contradictions of the movement in its earliest phases.”

The birth of the First International (1934). By Karl Radek (Marxists Internet Archive). “Preface to a pamphlet published in Sydney by the Communist Party of Australia in 1934.”

History of The First International. By G. M. Stekloff (Martin Lawrence, 1928, 463 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “The present work is by far the most comprehensive history of the First International hitherto published.”

Foundation of The International. Chapter in Otto Rühle, Karl Marx: His Life and Work (The Viking Press, 1928; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

On Inaugural Address …. By Karl Marx

Inaugural Address of the International Working Men’s Association “The First International”. Written: October 21-27, 1864.

Inaugural Address … By Karl Marx (Marxists Internet Archive)

The Inaugural Address. Chapter in Otto Rühle, Karl Marx: His Life and Work (The Viking Press, 1928). Scroll down.

Poster from The International
Poster from The International

Se også / See also:

Internationaler (Denstoredanske.dk)

History of the International Workingmen’s Association: The conflict between Marx & Bakunin (Marxists Internet Archive)

Tidslinjen 30. maj 1814 om Bakunin, med debatten mellem Bakunin og Marx / Timeline on the debate between Bakunin and Marx (Socialistisk Bibliotek)

Anarkisme vs. Marxisme / Anarchism vs. Marxism (Socialistisk Bibliotek)

Linkboxen Karl Marx 200 (Socialistisk Bibliotek)