Suspected Mau Mau terrorists being searched by security forces. These suspects had been rounded up in Kanyuki during Operation Scaramouche.
Suspected Mau Mau terrorists being searched by security forces. These suspects had been rounded up in Kanyuki during Operation Scaramouche. Source: BRITISH ARMY OPERATIONS AGAINST THE MAU MAU IN KENYA 1952 - 1956 © IWM (MAU 865)

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1952.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

 


4. januar 1952

Den 23-årige medicinstuderende Ernesto Guevara beslutter at udskyde sidste semester af medicinstudiet og starter sammen med den 29-årige Alberto Granado en tur især på motorcyckel, men alle rejseformer, op gennem Sydamerika, til Centralamerika (og fly til Miami, USA) – og besøgene på historiske steder for før-koloniale  folkeslag sammen med oplevelsen af den amerikanske dominans i landenes økonomi, og besøgene hos venstrefløjene i et Sydamerika i oprør giver ham pan-amerikansk udsyn og bliver en anti-imperialistisk ‘dannelsesrejse’. Efter 8.000 km. kom han tilbage til Buenos Aires i Argentina 31. juli 1952.
Dagbogen ‘Motorcykel dagbog’ bliver først udgive på engelsk i 1995, og bliver grundlag for filmen med García Bernal i rollen som den unge Guevara.

Rejse gennem Sydamerika: optegnelser. Af Ernesto Che Guevara (Lindhardt og Ringhof, 2000, 143 s.). 2. udgave, 2002 (L&R Pocket). Spanske titel: Un diario per un viaggio in motocicletta.
“Che Guevaras dagbøger for otte måneders rejse op gennem Sydamerika på motorcykel i 1951.” Filmatiseret som ‘Motorcykel Dagbog’ (‘Motorcycle Diaries’, instr. Walter Salles, 2003).

Se:

On the road with the young Che. By Lance Selfa (Socialist Worker, US, Issue 515, October 8, 2004). “Some may criticize Salles’s choice to focus on the more romantic, politically naïve Guevara. But in showing why someone like the young Ernesto could become a revolutionary, the film is most affecting and effective.”

When more could have been more. By Ramón Valle (World Socialist Web Site, 14 January 2005). “Salles’s portrayal of Che as a solemn, formal, and almost beatific youth traps the director in a bland liberal humanism and does not permit him to probe into social or even psychological questions, least of all Che’s own politics.”

Se også: Personlisten Che Guevara 1928-1967 (Socialistisk Bibliotek).

Ernesto Guevara (right) with Alberto Granado (left) aboard their “Mambo-Tango” raft on the Amazon River in June of 1952. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Collection: Museo Che Guevara (Centro de Estudios Che Guevara en La Habana, Cuba).
Ernesto Guevara (right) with Alberto Granado (left) aboard their “Mambo-Tango” raft on the Amazon River in June of 1952. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Collection: Museo Che Guevara (Centro de Estudios Che Guevara en La Habana, Cuba). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se også:

Bogforsiden

”I embrace you with all my revolutionary fervor”: An insightful new book. By Geoff Mirelowitz (World-Outlook, November 12, 2021). Review of ”I embrace you with all my revolutionary fervor”: Letters 1947-1967 by Ernesto Che Guevara’ with a foreword by Aleida Guevara (Seven Stories Press, 2021, 384 p.).
“… he was 18 years old and set off on the first of his travels with friends across Latin America. ‘Incidentally, I had no social awareness as an adolescent and I did not participate in any political or student struggles in Argentina’, Che wrote in a 1963 letter. That changed as he became acquainted with the economic, social, and political conditions of the continent.”

 


9. marts 1952

Den russiske revolutionære Alexandra Michajlovna Kollontaj dør i Moskva. (Født i Sankt Petersborg (efternavn Domontovitj) den 31. marts 1872, se denne dato for links.


28. marts 1952

Den faglige venstrefløjsaktivist og bl.a. formand for Havnearbejdernes Klub af 1980 i København, Kjartan “Lydia” Gudmundsson fødes iReykjavik i Island. (Dør i Valby 6. december 2020 , se denne dato for links m.m.)


 

4. april 1952

Villy Søvndal fødes i Linde ved Struer. Formand for Socialistisk Folkeparti 2005-2012. Udenrigsminister i regeringen Helle Thorning-Schmidt I fra oktober 2011.

Se:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten: Socialistisk Folkeparti – SF 1959-2009


 

9. april 1952

Militærjuntaen i Bolivia væltes, og den bolivianske “februar-revolution” begynder.

Se:

The Bolivian National Revolution 1952-1964 (Latin American Studies). “In July 1952, the government established universal suffrage, with neither literacy nor property requirements. In the first postrevolutionary elections in 1956, the population of eligible voters increased from
approximately 200,000 to nearly 1 million voters. The government also moved quickly to control the armed forces …”

Using the Cold War: The Truman administration’s response to the Bolivian national revolution. By Benjamin Dangl (Upsidedownworld.org, 6 May 2013). “This essay explores the ways in which President Harry Truman’s administration undermined the historic nationalist changes that took place during the National Revolution in Bolivia.”

Sixty years of the Bolivian revolution – what lessons can be learned? By Jorge Martin (In Defence of Marxism, 12 April 2012). “On April 9, 1952 Bolivia witnessed one of the deepest and most proletarian revolutions in the history of the American continent. In the space of a few hours, factory workers, the population of the cities and armed miners, defeated and humiliated the bourgeois state apparatus and physically destroyed the army of the ruling class, which would take years to be re-established.”

Bolivia 1952 – a glimpse of workers’ power (Socialist Worker, Issue 2297, 3 April 2012). “Sixty years after the Bolivian revolution, Steve Henshall shows how workers beat the army.”

Anti-capitalism or anti-imperialism? Interwar authoritarian and fascist sources of a reactionary ideology: The case of the Bolivian MNR (Insurgent Notes, Issue 3, March 2011; online at Libcom.org). “Loren Goldner’s detailed account and analysis of the Bolivian Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (MNR) which was the key player in the 1952 national revolution, and which was supported by the left despite its pro-fascist, corporatist tendencies.”

Bolivia: The revolution derailed? The crisis of 1952 and the Trotskyist movement (Revolutionary History, Vol.4, No.3, Summer 1992, p.1-87, online at Marxists Internet Archive). Theme with 7 articles. Scroll down.
See also Supplement: Bolivia: The revolutionary events of 1952-54 (Marxists Internet Archive)

Revolution in Bolivia. By John Newsinger (International Socialism, Issue 18, Winter 1983, p.60–86). “In Bolivia, the working class provided the force that in 1952 overthrew the government, destroyed the army and swept away the ruling class. The working class carried to power a populist petty bourgeois revolutionary government that once installed was confronted with a situation of dual power and was reluctantly compelled to carry through extensive structural reforms.”

Social mobility and economic development: The vital parameters of the Bolivian Revolution (pdf). By C. Fred Bergsten (Journal of Inter-American Studies, July 1964, p.367-375; online at Latinamericanstudies.org). “In 1952, Bolivia experienced the most thorough-going social revolution in Latin America since the Mexican upheaval early in this century. In the twelve years which have followed, The Andean republic has made remarkable progress in breaking down centuries-old societal gaps and forging an integrated nation.”

Bolivia: The restrained revolution (pdf). By Richard W. Patch (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1961, p.123-132; online at Latinamericanstudies.org). “A true revolution occurred in Bolivia in 1952, and its consequences continue to be strongly felt. The revolution triggered such extreme measures as nationalization of the tin mines, agrarian reform, neutralization of the army, and universal franchise, but the leaders of the revolutionary Nationalistic Revolutionary Movement are essentially moderates.”

Revolution and counter revolution in Bolivia: The great decade of class struggles. By Guillermo Lora (Fourth International, Vol.13, No.3, May-June 1952). “We are happy to be able to present to. our readers this historical survey and political analysis of the volatile, revolutionary Bolivian proletariat.”
See also Part II: Class struggles in Bolivia (Ibid., Vol.13, No.4, July-August 1952)

Frimærke for 10-året for den nationale revolution med minearbejdere, der spillede en afgørende rolle.
Frimærke for årsdagen for den nationale revolution.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen 18. december 2005, om valget af lederen af Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) Evo Morales til præsident i Bolivia.


 

6. maj 1952

Den italienske pædagog Maria Montessori dør. (født 31. august 1870).

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 6. januar 1907


 

21. august 1952

Sanger i The Clash, Joe Strummer, fødes som John Mellor i Ankara, Tyrkiet.
(Dør 22. december 2002 i Broomfield, Somerset, England).

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Personlisten: Joe Strummer


 

20. oktober 1952

I Kenya fører Mau Mau-oprøret mod den engelske kolonimagt til at den britiske kolonimagt erklærer undtagelsestilstand (til 1960), og til et af afkolonialiseringens hårdeste opgør, før Kenya bliver selvstændigt i 1963.

Se:

Artikler:

Hearts and minds: The myth and reality of British counter-insurgency. By John Newsinger (International Socialism, Issue 148, Autumn 2015). Scroll down to section: Kenya.

Britain’s brutal legacy in Kenya. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2384, 17 December 2013)

Britain’s gulag in Kenya. By Shaun Harkin (SocialistWorker.org, October 2, 2013)

British government forced to apologise to Kenyans tortured in 1950s. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2356, 6 Jun 2013)

The empire strikes back. By George Monbiot (Monbiot.com, October 8, 2012)

Mau Mau war veterans win right to sue Britain over torture. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2323, 5 October 2012)

Mau Mau torture case: Kenyans win ruling against UK. By Ian Cobain (The Guardian, 5 October 2012). With video and links.

Mau Mau victims seek compensation from UK for alleged torture. By Owen Bowcott and Ian Cobain (The Guardian, 7 April 2011). With video.

Kenya’s Mau Mau war: veterans demand justice from Britain. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2160, 18 July 2009)

The Mau Mau war in Kenya, 1952-60. By Mark Curtis (Mark Curtis, 12 February 2007)

The enemy within: loyalists and the war against Mau Mau in Kenya (pdf). By Daniel Branch (Journal of African History, 48, 2007, p.291-315)

Britain’s brutal rule in Kenya. By John Newsinger (Socialist Worker, Issue 1936, 29 January 2005)

How Britain crushed the ‘Mau Mau rebellion’: Channel Four TV’s Secret History – Mau Mau. By Barbara Slaughter (World Socialist Web Site, 15 September 1999)

Kenyan Mau Mau seek compensation from British government. By Jean Shaoul (World Socialist Web Site, 26 May 1999)

The agrarian origins of Mau Mau: a structural account (pdf). By Robert H. Bates (Agricultural History, Vol.61, No. 1, 1987, p.1-28)

Mau-Mau: 30 years later. By John Newsinger (Monthly Review, May 1985; online at Communist University/Internet Archive)

Bøger:

Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization. By Daniel Branch (Cambridge University Press, 2009, 250 p.)
Anmeldelse:
Loyalism and Mau Mau. By Martin Shanguhyia (MR Zine, 7.9.2010)

Histories of the Hanged: The Dirty War in Kenya and the End of Empire. By David M. Anderson (New York, Norton, 2005, 406 p.)
Anmeldelser:
Anderson, David, Histories of the Hanged. Britain’s Dirty War in Kenya and the End of Empire. Af Orla Jordal (Jordals.dk, 2007
How did they get away with it? By Bernard Potter (London Review of Books, Vol.27, No.5, 3 March 2005)

Britain’s Gulag: The Brutal End of Britain’s Empire in Kenya. By Caroline Elkins (London, Pimlico, 2005, 475 p.)
1952gulag.jpg
Anmeldelse:
How did they get away with it? By Bernard Potter (London Review of Books, Vol.27, No.5, 3 March 2005)
Video: Interview med Caroline Elkins: Mau Mau Rebellion: Caroline Elkins on abuse in colonial Kenya (Harward Extension School, 6:59 min.)
Imperial Reckoning (Wikipedia.org). Kritik af Caroline Elkins’ bog (amerikansk titel) for at have overdrevet drabene på Mau Mau’erne i genopdragelseslejrene.
My critics ignored evidence of torture in Mau Mau detention camps. By Caroline Elkins (The Guardian, 14 April 2011)
UK documents confirm torture of Mau Mau rebels (The World, April 13, 2011). Interview with Caroline Elkins – Audio and transcript.

Mau Mau and Kenya: An Analysis of a Peasant Revolt. By Wunyabari O. Maloba (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1993)

Mau Mau: An African Crucible. By Robert B. Edgerton (London, I.B. Tauris, 1990, 298 p.)

The Mau Mau War in Perspective. By Frank Furedi (London, James Currey, 1989, 239 p.) 1952kenya.jpg

Essays on Mau Mau: Contributions to Mau Mau Historiography (pdf). By Rob Buijtenhuijs (Leiden, African Studies Centre, 1982, 224 p.)

Mau Mau from Within: Autobiography and Analysis of Kenya’s Peasant Revolt. By Donald L. Barnett and Karari Njama (New York, Monthly Review Press, 1966, 512 p.)

Se også:

Kenya (Leksikon.org)


 

27. november 1952

Slansky-processen i Prag afsluttes. De hovedanklagede, heriblandt (den afsatte) generalsekretær for kommunistpartiet Rudolf Slansky, henrettes 3. december 1952.

Se:

The Slansky Trial: Stalinism, anti-semitism and conspiracy theories. By Stan Crooke (Workers’ Liberty, 3/36, February 2012)

Litteratur:

Tilståelsen : I Pragprocessens spindelvæv. Af Artur London (Martin, 1971).

Film:

L’Aveu/Tilståelsen/L’Aveu (1970). Instr. af Costa Gavras, m. Yves Montand, Simone Signoret mfl.

Se:

The Confession (1970 film) (Wikipedia.org)


Hits: 32