The Berlin wall in 1961. From: Vasabladet, 12 August 2011. Author: Unknown. Public domain.
The Berlin wall in 1961. From: Vasabladet, 12 August 2011. Author: Unknown. Public domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1961.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

 

10. januar 1961

Den amerikanske kriminal-forfatter Dashiell Hammett dør (født 27.5.1894). Medlem af det amerikanske kommunistparti og idømt ½ års fængselsstraf under McCarthyismen. Dannede par med forfatteren Lillian Hellman.

Dashiell Hammett. Photo: Antonio Marín Segovia. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0).
Dashiell Hammett. Photo: Antonio Marín Segovia. (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0). Source: Flickr.com.

Portræt af voldens ideologi. Af Bjarne Andersen (Arbejderen.dk, 2. februar 2011). “Hammett skrev bøger om rå vold og udnyttelse, små og store skurke, stærke mænd og smukke damer. Selv var han kommunist, anti-fascist og offer for McCarthys udrensning.”

San Francisco har en aura af mord og mystik. Af Bo Tao Michäelis (Politiken.dk, 17. juli 2010). “San Francisco – Sam Spade, Dashiell Hammets og Dan Turèlls storby noir.”

Dashiell Hammett (The Social Science Collective, 14 December 2020). “Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961) has long been considered the most important writer of hard-boiled fiction. Not only did he give the genre its hallmarks in his short stories, but he also wrote three of its masterpieces in his novels. He was recognized immediately for lifting a previously disreputable style of fiction into literary prominence.”

Dashiell Hammett: Hardboiled writer, communist fighter. By Mick Whale (Socialism Today, Issue 151, September 2011). “Hammett was also an anti-fascist activist and a member of the Communist Party of America. He went to jail rather than hand over evidence that could have been used against other activists during the anti-communist witch-hunt led by Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s.”

Dashiell Hammett lecture. By Joan Mellen (Joanmellen.com). Dashiell Hammett Lecture, March 5, 2009: “As profoundly as he was a brilliant author, so, simultaneously, was he a political man. From those days when he met socialists on the Baltimore wharves, he had been politically committed.”

Toast to Dash. By Jean-Patrick Manchette (Le Matin, August 16, 1980; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “He is universally recognized as the founder of the American roman noir and the best representative of the genre. Which makes him the best novelist in the world since 1920, and I can prove it.”

Writers reviewed: Dashiell Hammett. By Paul Cunningham (Socialist Review, Issue 446, May 2019). First published in Socialist Review, May 1979: “… the novels remain worthwhile, for the lean, clear quality of Hammett’s writing as he captures the feel of urban life. Hammett’s cities are a miniature of capitalism itself, the gaudy surface hiding misery, oppression and violence.”

Litteratur:

Dashiell Hammett (Bibliografi.dk). Oversigt over Hammetts bøger på dansk.

Dashiell Hammett (Pinkerton, 1979, 25 sider). Med artikler af Per Calum og Tom Kristensen + bibliografi af Bjarne Nielsen. Bibliografien findes i en revideret udgave i Dashiell Hammett: Kvinden i mørket (Fremad 1988, s. 77-106).

‘Voldens teolog: Dashiell Hammett’. I Dan Turéll: Sort film (Pinkerton, 1984, s.47-55)

Se også:

Eighty years since John Huston’s The Maltese Falcon. By David Walsh World Socialist Web Site, 1 February 2021). “Huston’s The Maltese Falcon is concisely and confidently realized, with almost no wasted words or movements. Hammett was a left-wing writer (eventually jailed during the anti-communist witch-hunts), of the hardboiled school.”

Two invented lives. By Phyllis Jacobson (New Politics, No. 23, Summer 1997). Review of Joan Mellen, Hellman and Hammett (New York, HarperCollins, 1996, 572 p.). “Joan Mellen’s exceptional biography, written from a left viewpoint, chronicles not only the tempestuous relationship of Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett but their love affair with Stalinism, as well.”

Forbidden questions: the politics of noir fiction (Socialism Today, Issue 132, October 2009). “Joel Lane looks at the politics behind the genre.”

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek / See also at Socialist Library:

Emnelisten: Rosenberg-sagen og McCarthyismen


 

17. januar 1961

Official Congo government portrait of Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960. Photo: unknown, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) government. Public Domain.
Official Congo government portrait of Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960. Photo: unknown, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) government. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Den afrikanske nationalist og det uafhængige Congos første statsminister Patrice Lumumba myrdes. (Født 1. juni 1925 i Onalua).

Se:

Articles:

In memory of Patrice Lumumba, assassinated on 17 January 1961. By Eric Toussaint (CADTM, 17 January 2021). “The figure of Patrice Lumumba has traversed history and still serves today as an example for all who champion the emancipation of peoples. Lumumba never surrendered.”

Why they killed Patrice Lumumba. By Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja (Jacobin, January 17, 2020). “Patrice Lumumba was a radical leader of the Congolese independence movement who resisted Belgian colonialism and corporate interests. That’s why he was assassinated in a US-backed coup 59 years ago today.”

Patrice Lumumba (1925–1961). By Sean Jacobs (Jacobin, January 17, 2017). “Lumumba’s short political life — as with figures like Thomas Sankara and Steve Biko, who had equally short lives — is still a touchstone for debates about what is politically possible in postcolonial Africa, the role of charismatic leaders, and the fate of progressive politics elsewhere.”

Patrice Lumumba and the unfinished business of liberation (Review of African Political Economy, January 15, 2021). “In this celebration of his life and work, the Congolese scholar and activist, Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, writes about the All-African People’s Conference (AAPC) that Lumumba attended in 1958, and the years of his leadership of the nationalist movement before his murder.”

Britain’s involvement in assassination of Congo’s Lumumba confirmed. By Jean Shaoul (World Socialist Web Site, 18 April 2013). “A senior British politician has revealed Britain’s involvement in the 1961 assassination of Patrice Lumumba, the Congo’s first prime minister.”

Patrice Lumumba’s relevance: Ideas for today’s generation of African leaders. By Antoine Roger Lokongo (Pambazuka News, Issue 613, 16 January 2013). “During the short life of Patrice Lumumba … he committed himself to several important ideas and principles that a new generation of Africans must re-visit.”

Fifty years since the murder of Patrice Lumumba. By Tom Eley (World Socialist Web Site, 22 January 2011). “Though not a socialist, Lumumba’s demand that the Congo should control its own extensive mineral wealth proved to be his death sentence.”

The murder of Patrice Lumumba: Congo’s tragedy (Socialist Worker, Issue 2233, 8 January 2011). “Leo Zeilig looks at his legacy and the fight against imperialism.”

Patrice Lumumba ‘will live forever’. By Leo Zeilig (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, September 2008) + book excerpt: Towards independence (pdf, 33 p.). “He has rightly become a symbol, in Africa and elsewhere, of the fight against imperialism.”

Patrice Lumumba. By Simon Hester (Socialist Review, Issue 331, December 2008). Review of Leo Zeilig, Patrice Lumumba: Africa’s lost leader (The University of Chicago Press, 2008, 198 p.). “This little book is an important addition to our history of the 20th century and essential reading for students of, and activists in, the African liberation struggle.”

New revelations on the assasination of Patrice Lumumba: A belated trial of Belgian colonialism. By Pierre Dorremans (In Defence of Marxism, 15 March 2005). “[About] the complicity of the Belgian government and the United Nations in this crime.”

The unquiet death of Patrice Lumumba. By Bill Vann (World Socialist Web Site, 16 January 2002). “In November, an all-party commission of inquiry formed by the Belgian government released a report acknowledging that Belgium played a role in the murder of the Congolese leader.”

Dark heart of imperialism. By Charlie Kimber (International Socialism, Issue 92, Autumn 2001). Review of Ludo De Witte, The Assassination of Lumumba (Verso, 2001, 196 p.).  “The book is] unravelling an appalling mass of lies, hypocrisy and betrayals had huge repercussions four decades after Lumumba was killed.”

Screenshot of footage of Lumumba (center) under arrest by soldiers before transport to Thysville. The other prisoner is MNC politician Christophe Musungu. 5 December 1960 Source https://archive.org/details/1960-12-05_Lumumba_Seized. Author: Universal Studios.
Screenshot of footage of Lumumba (center) under arrest by soldiers before transport to Thysville. The other prisoner is MNC politician Christophe Musungu. 5 December 1960. Author: Universal Studios. (CC0 1.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons. Se also the video: Internet Archive.

21. januar 1961

Den belgiske generalstrejke (startede i december 1960) afsluttes.

 Demonstrationer i Bruxelles mod enheds retten, studerende sitdownstrike. Dato: 3 januar 1961. Foto: Pot, Harry/Anefo. Copyright indehaver: National Archives. Samling/Arkiv: fotosamling Anefo. (CC0 1.0).
Demonstrationer i Bruxelles mod enheds retten, studerende sitdownstrike. Dato: 3 januar 1961. Foto: Pot, Harry/Anefo. Copyright indehaver: National Archives. Samling/Arkiv: fotosamling Anefo. (CC0 1.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

General strike 1960-61: 35 days that shook Belgium. By Erik Demeester (In Defense of Marxism, 15 January 2021). “For five weeks, a total of 1 million workers made the bosses and their state tremble. In this article we look back at those dramatic events.”

Belgium: Strike to Revolution? By Tony Cliff (International Socialism, No.4, Spring 1961, p.10-17). “Since 1886 the Belgian working class has been involved in eight general strikes. We should be hard put to find a better laboratory to study the place of the general strike in the proletarian class struggle, its potentialities and limitations, and. the. effect of other social and political factors on its development and outcome.”

The Belgian General Strike: Diary, December 28-31, 1960. By Maurice Brinton (Marxists Internet Archive). Original pjece her: Belgium: the general strike (Agitator/New Generation Pamphlet, January 1961; online at Libcom.org).


12. februar 1961

Den amerikanske antropolog og venstrefløjsaktivist David Graeber fødes i New York. Dør i Venedig, 2. september 2020 (se denne dato på Tidslinjen).


 

5. marts 1961

Dramaturgen Kjeld Abell dør (født 25.8.1901), forfatter til teaterstykkerne Melodien der blev væk (1935) og Anna Sophie Hedvig (1939).

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Abell, Kjeld (Socialister på Assistens Kirkegård). Flere links

Tidslinjen 6. september 1935 om teaterstykket Melodien der blev væk


 

13. marts 1961

Ruth Fischer (1895-1961), dissident German Communist Party leader. Source: Photograph by Bain News Service, dated June 16, 1924. Public Domain
Ruth Fischer (1895-1961), dissident German Communist Party leader. Fhoto: Photograph by Bain News Service, dated June 16, 1924. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Den tidligere tyske kommunist og partileder Ruth Fischer (oprindelig Elfriede Golke, født Eisler*) dør i Paris 13. marts 1961. (Født 11. december 1895 i Leipzig). Leder af KPD april 1924 – 1. sept. 1925, afløst af den stalinistiske Ernst Thälmann. Skrev bogen Stalin and German Communism (1948).
* Storesøster til komponisten til flere kendte tyske arbejdersange, Hanns Eisler, bl.a. “Roter Wedding”.(YouTube.com, 3:09 min.).

Se:

Ruth Fischer (Wikipedia.org), og større tysk artikel.

Fischer, Ruth (Marxists Internet Archive; Glossary of People)

Ruth Fischer: Communist and Anti-Communist between Europe and America, 1895-1961. By Mario Kessler (Logos, Vol.11, No.2-3, 2012)

Ruth Fischer and German Communism. By Paul G. Stevens (Fourth International, Vol.10, No.3, March 1949; online at Marxists Internet Archive). Review of Ruth Fischer, Stalin and German Communism (Harvard University Press, 1948)

Stalin and German Communism. By Paul Mattick (Western Socialist, March-April, 1949; online at Marxists Internet Archive). Review of Ruth Fischer’s book.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten: Den tyske revolution 1918-23


 

31. marts 1961

Kampagnen mod Atomvåbens første påskemarch Holbæk-København, med ca. 2000 deltagere afsluttes 3.4. med massemøde på Rådhuspladsen (25-30.000).

Se:

Påskemarch (Fredsakademiet; Freds- og Sikkerhedspolitisk ordbog) med referencer, + link til Bodil Kochs tale på Rådhuspladsen

Kampagnen mod Atomvåben (Leksikon.org).

Kampagnen mod Atomvåben (Wikipedia.dk) med links.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 21. oktober 1960, om Kampagnen mod Atomvåben.


 

12. april 1961

Den russiske kosmonaut Jurij Gagarin bliver første mand i rummet i Vostok 1 i 1 time og 29 min. (dør 27. marts 1968).

Se:

Juri Gagarin (Wikipedia.dk)

Fifty years since the first manned spaceflight. By Patrick Martin (World Socialist Web Site, 16 April 2011)

Daily Worker Reports Gagarin space Mission (Socialist Unity, 13 April 2011) Photo of newspaper article+ comments.

Short story: Yuri Gagarin. By Simon Korner (21 Century Socialism, December 17, 2009) Memories of the day in 1961.

Se også:

Austronaut (Denstoredanske.dk)

1961gagarinmosktimes.jpg


 

16. april 1961

Træningslejre for frivillige til analfabetiseringskampagnen i Cuba starter.

Se:

Radical literacy: The extraordinary story of Cuba’s literacy campaign in 1961 (Ocean Press; online at Internet Archive).

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emneoversigten Latinamerika / Latinamerica


 

17. april 1961

USA-invasionen i Cuba (ved eksilkubanere) i Svinebugten slår fejl.

Se:

Svinebugtsaffæren (Denstoredanske.dk)

Invasionen i Svinebugten i Cuba – 40 år (Modkraft.dk)

Bay of Pigs Invasion (Wikipedia.org). Også links til Wiki-artikler på dansk, norsk mfl.

U.S. Bay of Pigs invasion (Marxists Internet Archive; Cuban History)

50 years ago: Bay of Pigs invasion (World Socialist Web Site, 11 April 2011)

50 years: Kennedy administration plots Bay of Pigs invasion (World Socialist Web Site, 7 March 2011)

Day of Pigs (Spartacus Educational). Incl. YouTube-videos: Bay of Pigs (7. + 10 min.)

For or against The Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba 1961: Max Shachtman debates Hal Draper (Workers’ Liberty, 17 June, 2014). Pamphlet, published by Hal Draper in May 1961. Shachtman’s contribution also online at Marxists Internet Archive.

Litteratur:

Hans Magnus Enzensberger: Forhøret i Havana (Gyldendal, 1971, 184 sider). Se udddrag af bogens indledning: Svinebugten – et overblik (Cubabladet, nr.2, 2001)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emneoversigten: Latinamerika / Latinamerica


 

4. maj 1961

Starten på den første ‘Freedom Rides’ til USAs sydstater, der ville udfordre raceadskillelsen ved direkte aktion. Medfører voldsomme angreb især i Alabama og blev begyndelsen til militante borgerrettighedsbevægelse.

The Freedom Riders History (YouTube.com 5.03 min.) In the spring of 1961, black and white civil rights activists rode buses to protest the segregationist policies of the Deep South (Marian Holmes, Brian Wolly, Photos courtesy of Corbis, Getty Images and Library of Congress, Audio clips courtesy of Smithsonian Folkways).

Se:

4. maj 1961 Freedom Riders udfordrer racelove (Arbejderen.dk, 4. maj 2011). “En hvid og sort der deler bussæde. Det er en strafbar handling i USA’s sydstater i 1960’erne.”

Freedom Riders (Spartacus Educational)

Freedom Riders (Wikipedia.org)

Freedom Rides; American Civil Rights Movement (Encyclopædia Britannica)

50th anniversary: Freedom Rides and the civil rights movement. By Alex Snowdon (Counterfire, 28 May 2011)

50 years ago: ‘Freedom Riders’ assaulted by racist mobs in Alabama (World Socialist Web Site, 9 May 2011)

50th Anniversary of the First Freedom Ride: New documentary recounts historic 1961 effort to challenge segregated bus system in the deep South (Democracy Now! May 4, 2011)

The Jackson Freedom Ride. By Fred Halstead (International Socialist Review, Vol.23, No.2, Spring 1962)
—–

The Power of Freedom Songs. By Bruce Hartford (Civil Rights Movement Veterans, 2011)

Incl. “We Shall Overcome” (Joan Baez)

Pete Seeger-sange fra buskampagnen og  norgerrettighedsbevægelsen.

Se også om Freedom Summer (1964):

Freedom Summer (Wikipedia.org)

Fifty years since the Civil Rights Act. By Tom Mackaman (World Socialist Web Site, 2 July 2014)

Fifty years since the murder of the Mississippi civil rights workers. By Fred Mazelis (World Socialist Web Site, 23 June 2014)

When the whole world was watching Mississippi. By Marlene Martin (SocialistWorker.org, June 11, 2014)

Freedom Summer Theme (Against the Current, Issue 170, May-June 2014):
Freedom Summer, 1964: an overview, by Marty Oppenheimer
Freedom Schools: the curriculum, by Marty Oppenheimer
Freedom Summer remembered: interview with Walter Kaufmann
Remembering Mississippi, 1964-65: interview with Claudia Morcom

African-American self-defense. By Malik Miah (Against the Current, Issue 174, January-February 2015). Review of Charles E. Cobb Jr., This Nonviolent Stuff’ Get You Killed: How Guns Made the Civil Rights Movement Possible (Basic Books, 2014, 294 p.)

Nonviolence and black self-defense. By Dick J. Reavis (Against the Current, Issue 208, September-October 2020). “In fact, many direct actions were supported by defense squads that discretely stayed in the background, defending activists after the sun went down. This was especially true in Mississippi.”

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: Black Power: Historie og personer


 

31. maj 1961

Lov om prostitutionskunde-forbud – Lov nr. 163 af 31. maj 1961 om ændringer i borgerlig straffelov gør det strafbart med kønslig forhold ved betaling eller løfte herom til en person af samme køn under 21 år (“Den grimme lov”) – fører til forfølgelse af bøsser fra politiets og kriminelle miljøers side. Loven ophæves 4. juni 1965, se denne for links og den såk. Jens Jersild-debat.

 


 

11.-15. juni 1961

Socialdemokratiets 3. principprogram "Vejen frem"
Socialdemokratiets 3. principprogram “Vejen frem”

11.-15. juni 1961 afholdtes Socialdemokratiets 28. kongres, der vedtager partiets 3. principprogram Vejen frem. (Erstatter 1913-programmet, se: Tidslinjen 11. februar 1913; – og erstattes i 1977 af Solidaritet, lighed og trivsel, Socialdemokratiets 4. principprogram).

Links:

Vejen frem. Udgivet af Socialdemokratiet (1961, 14 sider; online på Det Kongelige Bibliotek). Se også ex. på Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek & Arkiv.

Betragtninger omkring Det socialdemokratiske Principprogram ”Vejen frem” (pdf). Af Jan Boisen (1997, 52 s.). Projekt på 2. modul af historie på Roskilde Universitetscenter.

Socialdemokratiets politik i 1960’erne: teori og praksis (pdf). Af Vagn Oluf Nielsen (Årbog for arbejderbevægelsens historie, nr. 7, 1977, s.7-45) + kritik af Vagn Oluf Nielsens analyse og fortolkning: Socialdemokratiets politik … II: Borgerlig eller socialistisk reformisme? (pdf). Af Hans Erik Avlund Frandsen (samme sted, s.46-53).

Se også:

  • Socialdemokratiske programmer (arbejds- og principprogrammer 1876-2004)(Arbejdermuseet)
  • Socialdemokratiet (Det Kongelige Bibliotek; Digitale samlinger, Partiprogrammer, Socialdemokratiet: 1876-2014). Bredere samling af også arbejdsprogrammer, valg- m.m.

Se også:

Demokratiet i Danmark – Socialdemokratisk set (pdf). Af Karin Hansen og Lars Torpe (Årbog for arbejderbevægelsens historie, nr. 13, 1983, s.121-161). Om partiets opfattelse af parlamentarisk demokrati og især velfærdsstaten.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: Socialdemokratiet


 

2. juli 1961

Den amerikanske forfatter Ernest Hemingway dør i Ketchum, Idaho (født i Oak Park, Illinois den 21. juli 1899, se denne)


 

13. august 1961

Den østtyske del af Berlin spærres af, Berlinmuren rejses.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: Berlinmurens fald


 

6. september 1961

Landsorganisationen SUF, Socialistisk Ungdoms Forum, stiftes. Fra 1962 ungdomsorganisation til SF, var i december 1967 med til at danne Venstresocialisterne, VS.

På 12. kongres i januar 1971 tilsluttede SUF sig den trotskistiske 4. Internationale, udgav ugeavisen Klassekampen og kalde sig Revolutionære Socialisters Forbund, RSF – fra 1980 SAP, Socialitisk ArbejderParti (i Enhedslisten fra november 2014: Socialistisk ArbejderPolitik).

Socialistisk Ungdoms Forum i 1. maj demonstration i M.P. Bruuns Gade, Århus, 1961. Foto: Børge Venge, 1. maj 1961. Original i Aarhus Stiftstidendes Billedsamling, Erhvervsarkivet, leveret af Aarhus Stadsarkiv. [NB skilteteksten tyder dog på 1. maj 1967!]
Socialistisk Ungdoms Forum i 1. maj demonstration i M.P. Bruuns Gade, Århus, 1961. Foto: Børge Venge, 1. maj 1961. Original i Aarhus Stiftstidendes Billedsamling, Erhvervsarkivet, leveret af Aarhus Stadsarkiv. Kilde: Stiften. [NB skilteteksten tyder dog på 1. maj 1967! – Teksterne på plakaterne: “Solidaritet med Vietnam”. “Demokrati Grækenland”, peger dog mere på 1. maj 1971.]

Se:

Socialistisk Ungdoms Forum. Af Ole Thorbek (Leksikon.org)

Socialistisk Ungdoms Forum 1961-71: med hovedvægten på en behandling af organisationens interne politik og organisatoriske brydninger 1968-71 (pdf). Af Ejner Friis Pedersen (Årbog for arbejderbevægelsens historie, nr. 7, 1977, s. 135-175)

Se også:


 

Deutsch: Ost-Ampelmännchen. 26 March 2012. Author: AMPELMANN GmbH. (CC BY-SA 4.0).
Deutsch: Ost-Ampelmännchen. 26 March 2012. Author: AMPELMANN GmbH. (CC BY-SA 4.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

13. oktober 1961

I DDR indføres trafiksignaler med figurer med runde former, der Ampelmann. Fra 90’erne kommer offentlig debat og nostalgisk stemning i det tidligere DDR for bevarelse af trafikfigurerne.

Se:

Ampelmänchen (Wikipedia) English & Deutsch

 


 

17. oktober 1961

I Paris massakrerer politiet en demo af overvejende algiere bosat i Frankrig, ved en demonstration for uafhængighed for Algeriet.
Ca. 2.300 såres alvorligt. Dødstallet er omdiskuteret, men går fra mindst 50 til over 200, og endnu flere når man inddrager hele perioden september-december 1961, idet politiet før og især efter d. 17.10. greb til repression: drab, fængsling, internering og deportation.

"Her druknede vi algierne". Banner på bro over floden Seine i Paris. The most famous shot of the Paris Massacres in 1961. Author or copyright owner: Unknown. Source: (WP:NFCC#4) Archive of the l'Humanité newspaper. 17-10-1961. Use in article (WP:NFCC#7). Paris massacre of 1961. Minimal use (WP:NFCC#3): No other freely usable photo to illustrate these events. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Here_are_drown_the_Algerians.jpg
“Her druknede vi algierne”. Banner på bro over floden Seine i Paris. The most famous shot of the Paris Massacres in 1961. Author or copyright owner: Unknown. Source: (WP:NFCC#4) Archive of the l’Humanité newspaper. 17-10-1961. Use in article (WP:NFCC#7). Paris massacre of 1961. Minimal use (WP:NFCC#3): No other freely usable photo to illustrate these events. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Here_are_drown_the_Algerians.jpg

Links:

Paris massacre of 1961 (Wikipedia.org). Med links til kort svensk og længere fransk leksikon-artikler.

Paris 1961: “Här dränker man algerier” (Motbilder, 22. maj 2009). Svensk artikel.

50 years ago: Paris police massacre French Muslims (World Socialist Web Site, 17 October 2011)

17 October 1961: Massacre in Paris (Socialist Worker, Issue 2273, 15 October 2011). Historian Jean-Luc Einaudi exposed the murders in his book The Battle of Paris.

Eyewitnesses to the 1961 Paris massacre (Socialist Worker, Issue 2273, 15 October 2011)

Paris 1961: a hidden massacre. By Tom Whittaker (International Socialism, Issue 116, Autumn 2007). Review of Jim House and Neil McMaster, Paris 1961: Algerians, State Terror and Memory (Oxford University, 2006). See from the book: Generel Introduction (21 p., pdf) (Algeria.com)

An interview with Alain Tasma, director of October 17, 1961. By David Walsh World Socialist Web Site, 28 September 2005)

The massacre of October 17, 1961. By Mitch Abidor (Marxists Internet Archive)

Appeal to the French: Algeria FLN October 22, 1961 (Marxists Internet Archive). The French federation of the FLN distributed this tract to the French public.

50 years ago: One million march in Paris against Algerian war (World Socialist Web Site, 13. February 2012)!! On the police repression as late as Febr. 1962.

 

Video:

1961tesmafilm.jpg

Remembering the Paris massacre 50 years on by Ben Barnier / France 3 (video)
Rachel HOLMAN (text) (France24, 18/10/2011; video 1:54 min., English text).)

Massacres du 17 Octobre 1961 a Paris (Youtube.com; 3:26 min.) Fransk tale og tekster.

Nuit Noire 17 Octobre 1961. Uddrag af spillefilm instr. af Alain Tasma (YouTube.com, 9:46 min.). Fransk tale.

Film complet:Nuit noire 17 octobre 1961 (YouTube, 1:48:28 hour). Fransk tale.

Der er efterfølgende en solidaritets-demo ved den franske ambassade i København.

Foto fra solidaritetsdemo ved den franske ambassade i København. Foto: Poul Møller. Fra hans arkiv
Foto fra solidaritetsdemo ved den franske ambassade i København. Foto: Poul Møller. Fra hans arkiv
Foto fra solidaritetsdemo ved den franske ambassade i København. Foto: Poul Møller. Fra hans arkiv
Foto fra solidaritetsdemo ved den franske ambassade i København. Foto: Poul Møller. Fra hans arkiv

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek / See also at Socialist Library:


 

21. oktober 1961

Den tyskfødte marxist Karl Korsch dør i Massachusetts, USA (Født i Niedersachsen, Tyskland, 15. august 1886, se denne)


 

5. december 1961

Frantz Fanon dør (født 20. juli 1925).

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Personlisten: Frantz Fanon (1925-1961)