USAs første Irak-krig,
USAs første Irak-krig, "Operations Ørkenstorm"USAF aircraft of the 4th Fighter Wing (F-16, F-15C and F-15E) fly over Kuwaiti oil fires, set by the retreating Iraqi army during Operation Desert Storm in 1991. Author: US Air Force. Public Domain. Se 16. januar nedenfor.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1991.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

 

16. januar 1991

Med USA’s bombardement på Irak indledes den 2. golfkrig, “Operation Ørkenstorm” (Operation Desert Storm). Afsluttes med våbenhvilen 28. februar 1991 efter 43 dage – og over 100.000 døde irakere.

Two destroyed Iraqi T-62 main battle tanks lie in the sand beside a road during the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm. Date: 24 February 1991. Source: DM-ST-91-11595. Author: J.R. Roark, US Marines. Public Domain.
Two destroyed Iraqi T-62 main battle tanks lie in the sand beside a road during the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm. Date: 24 February 1991. Source: DM-ST-91-11595. Author: J.R. Roark, US Marines. Public Domain.

Se:

Golfkrigen (Denstoredanske.dk)

Golfkrigen (Wikipedia.dk)

Gulfkriget 1991: Det första Irakkriget (pdf) (Fjärde Internationalen, nr.4, 1990 + nr.1, 1991, ialt 21 s.; online på Marxistarkiv.se). “Följande är två artiklar av den kände marxistiske Mellanöstern-kännaren Gilbert Achcar. Den första av artiklarna är skriven efter den irakiska invasionen av Kuweit, men innan det amerikanskledda angreppet, den andra efteråt.”

Revisiting MERIP coverage 30 years after the first Gulf War (MERIP, March 2, 2021). “Thirty years ago, the US-led Desert Storm military operation expelled the Iraqi army from Kuwait. That campaign would shift dynamics in the region and recalibrate American attitudes about war. MERIP has compiled our signature analysis from 1990 and 1991, with themes that are relevant today.”

Did the US really give Saddam fake OK to invade Kuwait? By Patrick Cockburn (CounterPunch, January 5, 2011). “The April Glaspie cable reveals little that was not known before. She did not tell Saddam not to invade Kuwait because neither she nor anybody else thought he would be stupid enough to do so.”

Iraq: twenty years since Desert Storm began the killing (Socialist Worker, Issue 2212, 31 July 2010). “Twenty years ago next week the US used Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait to show its power. Martin Percival looks at the terrible effects imperialism has had on that country’s people.”

Why the dark secrets of the First Gulf War are still haunting us. By Nora Eisenberg (AlterNet, February 27, 2009). “Americans, and our leaders, would do well to take a hard look at the war that we continue to love only because we never got to see it.”

Army Gen. Norman H. Schwarzkopf consults with then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Colin Powell in a meeting regarding the Allied military coalition in Operation Desert Shield. Schwarzkopf, the commander in chief of U.S. Central Command during Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, died Dec. 27, 2012, at the age of 78. (U.S. Air Force photo/Tech. Sgt. H. H. Deffner)
Army Gen. Norman H. Schwarzkopf consults with then-Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Colin Powell in a meeting regarding the Allied military coalition in Operation Desert Shield. Schwarzkopf, the commander in chief of U.S. Central Command during Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm, died Dec. 27, 2012, at the age of 78. (U.S. Air Force photo/Tech. Sgt. H. H. Deffner)

The Gulf War slaughter. By Anthony Arnove (SocialistWorker.org, /December 13, 2002/January 15, 2016). “The 1991 Gulf War against Iraq wasn’t really a war at all. It was a one-sided slaughter in a country that was no match for the massive armed might of the U.S. military and its many allies.”

The 1991 Gulf War: Establishing a new world order. By Lance Selfa (International Socialist Review, Issue 7, Spring 1999). “In the wake of all the slaughter and destruction, George Bush promised that Desert Storm would usher in a “new world order.” But the new order looked quite a bit like the old order.”

The Gulf War and the new world order. By Avishai Ehrlich (Socialist Register 1992, p.227-238). “How did the Gulf War end? Did it end? Why did it start? What was it about?”

Gulf War Videos (African Masterweb)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten: Imod besættelsen af Irak


 

4.-8. februar 1991

1991dem.jpgVesteuropas største kommunistparti, det italienske PCI, omdannes til Demokratisk Venstreparti , PDS.

Se:

Italy’s past glories (Jacobin, February 28, 2018). An interview with Fulvio Lorefice: “As Italy’s election approaches this weekend, the decline of its communist tradition still haunts the country’s left.”

The fate of the party (Jacobin, January 23, 2018). An interview with Gian Mario Cazzaniga: “The crisis of today’s Italian left has its roots in the transformations of the Italian Communist Party in the 1960s and ’70s.”

The dissolution of the Italian Communist Party (1991) (In Defense of Marxism, 8 June 2011). “This article by Roberto Sarti of the Editorial Board of Falcemartello looks at how this came about and draws some lessons for today’s communists.”

The return of Italian Communism? By Tom Behan (International Socialism, Issue 83, Summer 1999). “Mike Gonzalez asked Tom Behan to explore the recent history of the left in Italy to find an explanation for this apparent paradox and to try to assess how it will affect the rebuilding of an authentic revolutionary socialist tradition in Italy.”

Italian communism in crisis. By Stephen Hellman (Socialist Register, 1988, p.244-288). “The 1980s have not been kind to the Italian Communist Party (PCI).”

Se også:

Livorno, the rebel city where Italy’s Communist Party was born. By Olimpia Capitano (Jacobin, January 29, 2021). “A hundred years years ago, Italy’s Communist Party was founded in Livorno. The Tuscan port city had a long history of defying authority — and in the 1920s, its working-class neighborhoods were heartlands of the resistance against rising Fascism.”

How the Italian communists fought the rise of Fascism. By David Broder (Jacobin, January 21, 2021). “Founded 100 years ago today, the Italian Communist Party immediately faced a violent wave of repression, killing hundreds of militants. As policemen, business elites, and even liberal politicians swung behind Benito Mussolini, no party resisted the Fascist threat more than the Communists.”

When Italy’s communists painted Naples red. By Daniele Palmer (Jacobin, January 21, 2021). “Founded 100 years ago today, the Italian Communist Party fought its most famous battles in the country’s Northern industrial heartlands. But in the Southern city of Naples, it had to tailor its activity to a more complex reality — a city whose large informal economy reflected the deep inequalities on which the Italian state was founded.”

The birth of the Communist Party of Italy (PCdI) 1921. By Alessio Vittori (In Defence of Marxism, 13 May 2011). “Ninety years ago at the Livorno congress of the Italian Socialist Party a decisive mass split took place, which led to the foundation of the Italian Communist Party.”

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 12. december 1991, se nedenfor om Partito della Rifondazione Communista (PRC)


 

12. marts 1991

Den færøske forfatter William Heinesen dør. (Født i Tórshavn, 15. januar 1900, se denne)


 

3. april 1991

Den britiske forfatter Graham Greene dør i Vivey, Svejts. (Født 2. oktober 1904, se denne)


 

10. april 1991

Forfatteren af 68-generationens roman Foldboldenglen (1979), Hans-Jørgen Nielsen, dør (født 23. juni 1941, se denne).


 

27. april 1991

Holger K. Nielsen vinder valget over Steen Gade som Gert Petersens efterfølger til Gert Petersen som SF-formand på landsmøde i Herning.

Se:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

10. maj 1991

Fabriksarbejder, skuespiller, kommunist og forfatter Dagmar Andreasen dør i København.

(Født i  Preetz, Tyskland, 28. december 1910, se denne).


 

13. maj 1991

På ekstraordinær kongres nedlægges Danmarks Kommunistiske Ungdom (DKU), oprettet som Socialdemokratisk Ungdomsforbund (SUF) i 1906.

Se:

Vand under broen, 21: Ole Jensen om DKU i 80’erne (Radioaktiv, november 2020). “Vi snakker om fredsbevægelsen, skolingsture til Moskva, Next stop Nevada, fagligt arbejde, punk musik og no future.”

Danmarks Kommunistiske Ungdom: gennem opblomstring og opløsning – 1960–1990 (pdf). Af Knud Holt Nielsen (Arbeiderhistorie [norske], nr.1, 2011, s.63-85). “DKP fastholdt længe traditionerne – herunder de traditionelle politikformer, mens man i DKU i stigende grad søgte fornyelse og efterhånden tabte troen på hele det kommunistiske projekt.”

Kamporganisationen, der kvalte sig selv i forvisningen om at have ret. Af Rikke Dahl Jensen. (Information.dk, 10. januar 2010). Interview med historikeren Knud Holt Nielsen: “Det var succesen i 1970’erne, der lagde grunden til opløsningen, siger han”.

På skoling i østblokken (pdf). Af Knud Holt Nielsen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 2008, s.16-36)

“Politisk idealisme, gode fester eller realiseret socialisme”: resultater af en spørgeskemaundersøgelse (II) (pdf). Af Knud Holt Nielsen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 2005, s.33-53)

“Giv mig de bedste iblandt jer”: hvem var DKU’erne? Resultater af en spørgeskmaundersøgelse (I) (pdf). Af Knud Holt Nielsen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.4, 2004, s.40-54)

Da skoleeleverne blev fagligt organiseret (pdf). Af Knud Holt Nielsen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.3, 2000, s.22-42).

Litteratur:

Knud Holt Nielsen: Giv mig de rene og ranke: Danmarks Kommunistiske Ungdom 1960-1990 (SFAH, 2009, 487 sider). Se interview med forfatteren: Kamporganisationen, der kvalte sig selv i forvisningen om at have ret (Information.dk, 9. januar 2009)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

DKU-Løbeseddel fra fredsarbejdet i 1950'erne
DKU-Løbeseddel fra fredsarbejdet i 1950’erne

 

14. maj 1991

Jiang Qing dør ved selvmord,  (født 14.3.1914). Enke efter Folkerepublikken Kinas og kommunistgpartiets leder Mao Zedong (gift i 1938), og var under den såkaldte Kulturrevolution leder af den såkaldte Firebande. Dødsstraf blev i 1983 ændret til livsvarigt fængsel.

Se:

Jiang Qing (Wikipedia.org).

Se også:

Kulturrevolutionen (Leksikon.org)

Gang of Four (Wikipedia.org) med links til bl.a. danske artikel.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linksamlingen: Folkerepublikken Kina, 1949- . Se her afsnit om Den store Proletariske Kulturrevolution, 1966.


 

25. juni 1991

Kroatien og Slovenien erklærer sig uafhængige stater. Borgerkrigene starter i eks-Jugoslavien.

 

Se:

Yugoslav wars (Wikipedia.org)

Jugoslaviens sammenbrud: balkankrigene 1991-2001. Red. Anders Bjørn (Frydenlund, 2010) (His2rie.dk). Se Kildetekster.

Om Ordfrontfejden [2004-2005] (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, 13. juni 2011). “Artikelsamling som handlar om en infekterad debatt som följde i svensk press efter Balkankrigen.”

The lessons of Yugoslavia. By Louis Proyect (MR Zine, 30.03.09). Review of David Gibbs, First Do No Harm: Humanitarian Intervention and the Destruction of Yugoslavia (Vanderbilt University Press, 2009). See also: David Gibbs answers Marko Atilla Hoare (The Unrepentant Marxist, December 20, 2010)

The dismantling of Yugoslavia: A study in inhumanitarian intervention. Part 1-4. By Edward S. Herman and David Peterson (Monthly Review, Vol.59, No.5, October 2007) + Timeline

Dubious sources: How Project Censored joined the whitewash of Serb atrocities. By David Walls (New Politics, No.33, Summer 2002)

Theses on the Balkan War. By Mike Haynes (International Socialism, Issue 83, Summer 1999)

The Balkan war: Can there be peace? By Lindsey German (International Socialism, Issue 69, Winter 1995)

The left and the Balkan war. By Duncan Blackie (International Socialism, Issue 69, Winter 1995)

The fragmentation of Yugoslavia: an overview (pdf). By Catherine Samary (Notebook for Study and Research, No.19/20, 1993, 60 p.)

Featured topics: Former Yugoslavia (Workers Liberty)

Destroyed Serbian house in Sunja, Croatia. From 1991-1995 Sunja was part of Republic of Serbian Krajina. Relict of war 1991-1995 in Yugoslavia. Date: 8 February 2011 Author: Petar Milošević. (CC BY-SA 3.0). Source: <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sunja_(Croatia).JPG">Wikimedia Commons.</a>
Destroyed Serbian house in Sunja, Croatia. From 1991-1995 Sunja was part of Republic of Serbian Krajina. Relict of war 1991-1995 in Yugoslavia. Date: 8 February 2011 Author: Petar Milošević. (CC BY-SA 3.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Litteratur:

Misha Glenny: Jugoslaviens sammenbrud : den tredje Balkankrig (Gyldendal, 1994).


 

3. august 1991

Svend Møller Kristensen dør. (Født 12. november 1909, se denne).


 

16. august 1991

USSR’s statsadvokatur rehabiliterer officielt Arne Munch-Petersen, den danske kommunistiske tidligere folketingsmedlem, der siden 1937 var forsvundet i Sovjet – for at dø 12. november 1940 i Botyrka fængsel.
Blev officielt rehabiliteret af USSR’s Statsadvokatur den 16. august 1991.

Gift i 1935 med Elna Hiort-Lorenzen, se linksamlingen: Bispebjerg Kirkegård – progressive personer/Socialisterne.

Se:

Munch-Petersen, Arne (Leksikon.org)

Tidslinjen 12. november 1940 om Arne Munh-Petersen.

Litteratur:

Ole Sohn: Fra Folketinget til celle 290: Arne Munch-Petersens skæbne (Vindrose, 1992).


 

19. august 1991

August-kupforsøget mod Sovjetunionens præsident Gorbatjov.
31. august opløses kommunistpartiet for åben skærm ved dekret af præsidenten for Rusland, Boris Jeltsin. 8. december 1991 opløses Sovjetunionen officielt.

Se:

Sovjetunionens undergang fylder rundt. Af Søren Riishøj (Solidaritet.dk, 18. december 2021). “For 30 år siden brød Sovjetunionen sammen. Det fik store konsekvenser for hele verden, og omtales stadig af Vladimir Putin som ‘en geopolitisk katastrofe’.”

Det kommunistiske kup der slog fejl. Af Vibeke Sperling (Information.dk, 19. august 2016). “I dag for 25 år siden forsøgte kupmagere at bremse Gorbatjovs reformer af Sovjetunionen. Det mislykkedes takket være menige russeres vilje til demokrati og blev begyndelsen til enden for Sovjet.”

Ruslands sorte oktober (pdf). Af Aksel V. Carlsen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.2, 2016, s.100-129). “Man kan tale om Ruslands ‘røde’ oktober, da sovjetmagten i 1917 blev proklameret med henblik på at opbygge et socialistisk samfund – det vi kom til at kende som sovjetunionen. Analogt hermed kan man tale om et ‘sort’ oktober, da boris Jeltsin med magt udryddede resterne af sovjetsystemet i 1993.

Ruslands sorte oktober. Af Eigil Nielsen (Modkraft.dk, 26. maj 2015). Anmeldelse af Aksel V. Carlsen: Ruslands sorte oktober: Jeltsins kup og lokale borgerkrig (Forlaget Solidaritet, 2015, 616 s.). “Den russiske præsident Boris Jelsins angreb på det russiske parlament i 1993 var ikke en demokratisk revolution, men en blodig stadfæstelse af en enevældig præsident.”

Se også:

Putin-narrativer (pdf). Af Kim Frederichsen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 2017, s.132-142). “Vi skal i nærværende temaanmeldelse se nærmere på en række biografier, dels oversatte, dels skrevet af repræsentanter fra den snævre klub af russisktalende danske ruslandseksperter.”

Jubilæet, der blev glemt. Af Ulf V. Olsen (Kritisk Debat, 16. oktober 2017, online på DBC Webarkiv). “Der er nu gået så mange år, at ansvaret for denne tilstand retteligt må tilfalde den (neo)liberalisme, som tog over efter Sovjetunionens fald.”

Sovjetunionens sammanbrott 30 år (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, 31. december 2021). “Artiklar ur svensk vänsterprocess ser tillbaka på Sovjetunionens kollaps och konsekvenserna av detta.”

Å forstå Putins Russland. Av Aslak Storaker (Ny Tid, nr. 1, januar 2016). Anmeldelse af Mikael Hem: Putin – den ensomme tsaren (Pax, 2015); Aksel V. Carlsen: Ruslands sorte oktober (Solidaritet, 2015); Kalle Kniivilä: Putins folk (Atlas, 2014). “Med den spente situasjonen i Europa og i Midtøsten er bøker som øker vår russlandsforståelse viktigere enn noen gang.”

Kapitalismens triumftog i Rusland og Østeuropa (pdf). Af Hans Aage (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, april 2004, s.1-20). “Det kræver en avanceret argumentations- og bortforklaringsteknik at fremstille de økonomiske omvæltninger i Østeuropa som en sejr for vestlig markedsliberalistisk ideologi.”

Gangsterkapitalisme. Af Nancy Holmstrom og Richard Smith (Gaia, nr.32, forår 2001). P.t. ikke online. Se engelsk udgave: The necessity of gangster capitalism: primitive accumulation in Russia and China (Monthly Review, Vol.51, No.9, February 2000). “The emergence of gangster capitalism and wholesale corruption in the former Soviet bloc and China should have been entirely predictable to anyone familiar with the historical origins of capitalism in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere …”

Russian imperialism and its monopolies. By Michael Pröbsting (New Politics, Issue 72, Winter 2022). “In the following article, I will not deal with all aspects of Russian imperialism but will focus on some features of its economy.”

An anniversary of Stalinist counterrevolution: 30 years since the end of the USSR. By John Malvar (World Socialist Web Site, 28 December 2021). “The International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI) recognized, as early as 1985, that Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroika expressed the drive of the Stalinist bureaucracy to reintegrate the Soviet economy with the world market through the restoration of capitalism.”

Thirty years ago, the Soviet Union collapsed. By Len Glover (Solidarity & Workers’ Liberty, Issue 618, 15 December 2021). “On 25 December 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev announced that he had resigned as president of the USSR, and the USSR itself had been dissolved. Len Glover traces the steps which in just a few years took the USSR from second superpower to collapse.”

Why the Soviet Union fell 30 years ago (Socialist Worker, Issue 2785, 11 December 2021). “On the 30th anniversary of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tomáš Tengely-Evans argues the event wasn’t a defeat for socialists. The lessons learnt are valuable for socialists today in their fight for ‘real socialism’.”

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the rise of Putin. By Niklas Albin Svensson (In Defence of Marxism, 10 December 2021). “This month marks the 30th anniversary of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The most powerful deformed workers’ state was collapsing into chaos as supposed communists were looting the state and its assets, cheered on by the imperialists of the west. Capitalism reared its ugly head, and the workers of the Soviet Union had to pay the price.”

A convenient enemy (Weekly Worker, Issue 1239, Februart 21, 2019). “Hillel Ticktin delves beneath the propaganda to reveal what is really driving the friction between Russia and the west.”

Putin and Russia’s turn to capitalism. By Louis Proyect (CounterPunch, December 28, 2018). Review of Tony Wood, Russia Without Putin: Money, Power and the Myths of the New Cold War (Verso, 2018, 224 p.). “A ground-breaking study that … will serve as a wake-up call to return to a class rather than a chess analysis.”

Consolidating Russia’s gangster capitalism. By Niall Mulholland (Socialism Today, Issue 222, October 2018). Review of Shaun Walker, The Long Hangover (Oxford University Press, 2018, 288 p.). “Although Walker takes a liberal stance, [the book] is well worth a read by socialists.”

Russia and imperialism today (Counterfire, October 9, 2017). “Putin’s Russia is an authoritarian state, but does it pose the threat that advocates of the NATO alliance often claim? John Rees looks at the profile of Russian military power today.”

Incommensurate Russia. By Perry Anderson (New Left Review, Issue 94, July-August 2015, p.5-43). “With the collisions over Ukraine, the contradictions in Russia’s relations with the West have been sharpened by sanctions and economic crisis.” Svensk udgave: Ett Ryssland som inte passar in (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, 28. oktober 2016)

From the short “Soviet century” to Putin’s Russia: Breaks and reinsertions into the capitalist world-system. By Catherine Samary (International Viewpoint, Issue 481, February 2015). “Far from being a ‘democratic revolution’, it had more the features of a social counter-revolution whose internal/ external actors hid their goals behind the screens of parliamentary ‘demo-dictatorships’ without any real choice.”

Putin’s world outlook (New Left Review, Issue 88, July-August 2014, p.54-66). Tom Parfitt interviews Gleb Pavlovsky: “The interview below, conducted in January 2012 … has never before been published. It is a remarkable document—arguably the most revealing single account of Putin’s vision of rule, and its roots, to have emerged so far.”

Mismanaged democracy. By Mike Haynes (Socialist Review, Issue 365, January 2012). “vents in Russia have a habit of proving people wrong. The oil boom allowed Vladimir Putin to re-establish a degree of order and to make Russia a “managed democracy”. Now it looks more like a mismanaged one as economic crisis has undermined Putin’s appeal and made the cronyism and corruption look even less acceptable.”

Collapse as crucible. By Tony Wood (New Left Review, Issue 74, March-April 2012). “While Russia’s anti-Putin demonstrations have prompted talk of a civic awakening—led by a flat-pack middle class—the country’s overall social landscape remains largely unmapped. Tony Wood surveys its shifting structures since the Soviet collapse, and the consequences of marketization’s advance through the USSR’s ruins.”

Putin’s ten years in power. By Vladimir Volkov (World Socialist Web Site, 28 August 2009). “The tenth anniversary of Vladimir Putin’s accession to the summit of political power in Russia—first as prime minister, then president, then again as prime minister—is an occasion for an overall evaluation of the past decade and its place in modern Russian history.”

The uncertain return of Russian power. By Mike Haynes (International Socialism, Issue 116, Autumn 2007). “Today Russia’s policies reflect the interaction of internal and external elements, but to make sense of it we need to start with the external dimension and Russia’s changing reaction to the West’s policies of the last decade and a half.”

Russia redux? by Vladimir Popov (New Left Review, Issue 44, March-April 2007). “A balance-sheet of Russia’s post-Soviet fortunes …” + responce by Tony Wood: Contours of the Putin era (Ibid.).

The triumph of capitalism in Russia and Eastern Europe and its Western apologetics. By Hans Aage (Socialism and Democracy, Issue 44, 2004). “The revolutionary wave since 1989 has entailed a large-scale and ruthlessly hazardous economic adventure policy. Privatisation has taken place extensively, and in Russia 70% of GDP is privately produced; foreign trade and capital movements have been liberalised, internally prices and economic activity have been liberalised as well, and the economic functions of government have been drastically reduced.”

Life after communism: the facts (New Internationalist, Issue 366, April 2004). “In the ‘transition’ from communism, the suffering of the people of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union has been great, while the hoped-for freedom from exploitation and autocracy remains elusive. The NI maps some of the costs of market-driven shock therapy.”

The Russian catastrophe. By Mike Haynes and Pete Glatter (International Socialism, Issue 81, Winter 1998). “It will be argued here that the ruling class has retained its control of the means of production since Soviet times, merely shifting its grip by means of privatisation. It has, as a result, continued to dominate the main successor state to the Soviet Union. But specific elements involved in the transition, especially the economic crisis and the loss of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), have disorganised and disorientated the ruling class and the state …”

The death of the USSR and the rebirth of socialism (Workers Liberty, 26 April, 2007). “The articles (1991-1992) collected here document the attempts of ourselves and the other currents of the left to understand those epoch-defining events as they happened.”

The Yeltsin regime. By K.S. Karol (Socialist Register, 1995, p.129-139). “Who holds power in Russia? ”

Soviet Union-Eastern Europe, Part II: Nature of the Transition. By Robert Brenner (Against the Current, Issue 31, March-April 1991). “Robert Brenner’s essay on the dynamics of the crisis helps put these dramatic events in context.” See also Part I: The Soviet Union & Eastern Europe (Ibid., Issue 30, January-february 1991).

Diskurs. Hvad var Sovjetunionen for et samfund? Hvad gik der galt og hvorfor? Del 1 + Del 2 (Autonom Infoservice, 9. august + 28. august 2017).

Se også:

How the Russian Left survived in a post-Soviet world. By Ilya Budraitskis (Jacobin, December 26, 2021). “After the demise of the USSR on December 26, 1991, the Russian left had to find its place in a society transformed beyond recognition. In the face of huge challenges, its activists have led important struggles against the system established by Yeltsin and Putin.”

Gorbachev: accidental architect of world change (Socialism Today, Issue 216, March 2018). Review of William Taubman, Gorbachev: his Life and Times (Simon & Schuster, 2017). “Peter Taafe reviews a comprehensive study of the central player.”

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen 10. december 2011 om de russiske december-demonstrationer.

Linkboxen Berlinmurens fald


 

9. september 1991

70 udvisningstruede statsløse palæstinensiske flygtninge forlader asylet (siden 1. september) i Enghave Kirke til fordel for et 154 dages ophold i Blågårds Kirke (frem til 31. januar 1992). Særlov fremsat i Folketinget 28. januar 1992. giver dem asyl.

Se:

Palæstinenserloven (Wikipedia)

Litteratur:

154 døgn : En beretning om palæstinensernes asyl i Blågårds Kirke. Af den danske Støttegruppe/Anne M. Sørensen (red.) (Politisk Revy/Klim, 1992).


 

30. november 1991

En række danske demonstrationsdeltagere anholdes under antifascitisk demonstration i Lund.


 

12. december 1991
2012pcremblem.png

Det italienske parti Partito della Rifondazione Communista (PRC) grundlægges.
Repæsenteret parlamentarisk af bl.a. Lucio Magri (se tidslinjen: 28. november 2011)

Se:

Communist Refoundation Party (Wikipedia.org) med link til bl.a. kortere dansk intro-artikel.

Rifondazione Comunista: failed refoundation. By Toby Abse (Weekly Worker, Issue 934, October 18, 2012). Review of Salvatore Cannavo, La Rifondazione mancata, 1991-2008: una storia del PRC Edizioni Alegre (Rome, 2009)

Rifondazione votes for war. By Megan Trudell (International Socialism, Issue 113, Winter 2007)

Refounding further (International Socialism, Issue 102, Spring 2004). Tom Behan interviews Fausto Bertinotti, the national secretary of the Party of Communist Refoundation.

The politics of tactical manoeuvre: Interview with Paolo Ferrero of Italy’s Communist Refoundation Party. By Marianne Arens and Peter Schwarz (World Socialist Web Site, 2 May 2003)

Se også:

The Rebirth of Italian Communism, 1943–44: Dissidents in German-Occupied Rome. By Chris Bambery (Counterfire, February 3, 2022). Review of David Broder’s book (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, 258 p.). “David Broder’s The Rebirth of Italian Communism reveals the important story of the dissident Italian communist resistance in Nazi-occupied Rome.”

Italy’s past glories. By David Broder (Jacobin, 28 February 2018). “An interview with Fulvio Lorefice: “As Italy’s election approaches this weekend, the decline of its communist tradition still haunts the country’s left.”

Se også ovenfor, 4.-8. februar 1991, om PCI / PDS.


 

16. december 1991

C-holdets første demonstrationer mod lukning af ældreinstitutioner.

Se:

C-holdets oprør (Denstoredanske.dk)


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