Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger 16 janauar 1919 om mordet på Karl Liebknecht og Rosa Luxemburg. Se nedenfor 15. januar 1919.
Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger 16 janauar 1919 om mordet på Karl Liebknecht og Rosa Luxemburg. Se nedenfor 15. januar 1919.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1919.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

Bladliste

Nye blade 1919:

  • Arbejdertidende. Borgerligt liberalt månedsblad.
  • Arbejdet. Organ for Danmarks venstresocialistiske Parti [fra 23.12.1920: Organ for DKP]
  • Den uafhængige Socialdemokrat. Ugeblad

Se:

Arbejderhistorisk bladliste, under året 1919.


1919: the year the world was on fire. By Steve Fraser (Jacobin, 13 January 2019). “One hundred years ago was a time of revolution. Emma Goldman, John Reed, and Bill Haywood were at the center of it all.”

1919 race riots in Britain—a legacy of empire (Socialist Worker, Issue 2676, 15 October 1919). “One hundred years ago Britain was gripped by huge workers’ struggles but also horrific race riots. Ken Olende looks at how the racist violence was unleashed—and how some of the left organised against it.”

1919—Britain in revolt (Socialist Worker, Issue 2635, 31 December 2018). “One hundred years ago protests and strikes shook the state. Sarah Bates tells the story of a year of struggle that posed a challenge to the system.”


 

15. januar 1919

Rosa Luxemburg og Karl Liebknecht myrdes i Berlin.

Se:

Rosa Luxemburg & Karl Liebknecht (RosaKarl.org; online på Internet Archive WayBackMachine)

Rosa Luxemburg og Karl Liebknecht myrdes (Arbejderen.dk, 15. januar 2019). “Mordene på Rosa Luxemburg og Karl Liebknecht var en del af en større aktion iværksat af den socialdemokratiske regering for at knuse revolutionen i Tyskland.”

Er dette liget af Rosa Luxemburg? Af Peter Wivel (Politiken.dk, 7. juni 2009). “Forsker mener, at liget af en af Tysklands mest kendte revolutionære har ligget gemt i en hospitalskælder siden 1919.”

‘I was, I am, I will be’ – 100 years after the death of Rosa Luxemburg (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, 15 January 2019). “Joe Sabatini reviews a recent publication exposing the events of their deaths, Klaus Gietinger’s The Murder of Rosa Luxemburg, as well as providing an introduction to some of the literary works inspired by the events of 16 January 1919.” See also review by Mark Farmer (Socialist Review, Issue 445, April 2019).

The murder of Rosa Luxemburg (Verso, Blog, 15 January 2019). An excerpt from the Introduction to Klaus Gietinger, The Murder of Rosa Luxemburg (Verso, 2019, 224 p.). “On the tracks of the killers of Rosa Luxemburg.”

“They were openly calling for murder” (Verso, Blog, 15 January 2019). “On the 100th anniversary of the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, Klaus Gietinger is interviewed about the events that lead up to the murders, and who was responsible for them.”

‘If you do not follow the order you will be shot’: New facts about the murder of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (Revolutionary Democracy Journal, Vol.5, No.1, April 1999)

Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (1919). By Leon Trotsky (In Defence of Marxism)

Die Ermordung von Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht (Deutsche Historische Museum, DHM, Berlin)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 13. august 1871, om Karl Liebknecht.
Personlisten: Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919)
Linkboxen: Liebknecht/Luxemburg-demoer i januar i Berlin
Linkboxen: Den tyske revolution 1918-23


 

28. januar 1919

Den tyske socialist, skribent og medstifter af Spartakusforbundet Franz Mehring dør i Berlin (født i Schlawe i Pommern den 27. februar 1846, se denne)


4. februar 1919

4. februar 1919 til “Ekspressionistisk Aften” i Politikens foredragssal affyrer digteren Emil Bønnelycke pistolskud under egen oplæsning af sit digt Rosa Luxemburg – Prosalyrisk Symphoni pathetique in Memoriam (1919, 54 sider)

Varna: Artikler 1919-1942 (Tanker i gang). Scroll ned til Skuddene bragede bare ikke.

Da Bønnelyckes pistol genopstod en aften i Politikens Hus. Af Jes Stein Petersen (Politiken, 1. april 2016, Bøger, side 2). Online fuldtext kun for abon.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

1919bonn.jpg
Med en mediebevidsthed, der var helt ny for forfattere, affyrede Emil Bønnelycke ved en oplæsningsaften i Politikens foredragssal i februar 1919 tre revolverskud. Den elegante og stilbevidste forfatter er her fanget af tegneren Hans Bendix. (Kilde: Varna – Tanker-i-gang.dk). Citat fra digtet på samme side. ©Hans Bendix/Frederiksborgmuseet.

Litteratur:

Rosa Luxemburg – Prosalyrisk Symphoni pathetique in Memoriam. Af Emil Bønnelycke (København, 1919, 54 sider). De 100 trykte eksemplarer er forsynet med teksten: “Digtet vil ikke fremkomme i nogen Bog – eller Digtsamling, foreliger saaledes kun i denne Form.”


6. februar 1919

Starten på generalstrejken (6.-11. februar) i Seattle imod lønfastfrysningen under Første Verdenskrig. Første begivenhed under den såkaldte “Red Scare” (kommunistforskrækkelse) i USA 1919-20.

Links:

The front page of the Seattle Union Record at the beginning of the Seattle General Strike, Monday February 3, 1919. 1919. Public domain.
The front page of the Seattle Union Record at the beginning of the Seattle General Strike, Monday February 3, 1919. 1919. Public domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

When the Seattle General Strike and the 1918 flu collided. By Cal Winslow (Jacobin, May 1, 2020). “The first major general strike in the United States coincided with the last major pandemic. Here’s the full story.”

How the Seattle General Strike of 1919 shut down the city. By Feliks Banel (MyNorthwest, January 23, 2019). About David Jepsen’s documentary “Labor War of the NorthWest”, with link to trailer (2:32 min.).

How general strike rhetoric became a city-wide reality. By Steve Early (New Politics, January 4, 2020). “Review of Cal Winslow, Radical Seattle: The General Strike of 1919 (Monthly Review Press, 2020, 220 p.). “Winslow’s work provides not just a window into the world of left-wing labor activism during its last century glory days. His book contains many illustrative examples of socialist agitators and organizers steadily expanding the audience for their ideas …” Se also review by John Westmoreland (Counterfire, August 20, 2020).

When workers stopped Seattle. By Cal Winslow (Jacobin, July 3, 2019). “The Seattle General Strike of 1919 is a forgotten and misunderstood part of American history. But it shows that workers have the power to shut down whole cities — and to run them in our interests.”

100 years since the Seattle General Strike. Part 1-2. By Kayla Costa (World Socialist Web Site, 11-12 February 2019). “From February 6 to 11, 1919, more than 60,000 workers in Seattle, Washington joined one of the most significant general strikes in United States history. Sparked by the appeals of local shipyard workers, for six days the working class united across industries took control of the economic life of the leading city of the Pacific Northwest.”

The Seattle General Strike: a 100-Year legacy. By Cal Winslow (CounterPunch, February 8, 2019). “Today, this strike is largely forgotten, or worse, when remembered, dismissed as a long lost cause, sometimes reduced to a ‘disaster’ – that is, a near fatal setback for Seattle’s working people. It was neither.”

When workers’ power ran Seattle (SocialistWorker.org, February 6, 2019). “On its centenary this week, Darrin Hoop recounts the largely untold history of the Seattle General Strike of 1919.”

Company town? Ghosts of Seattle’s rebel past. By Cal Winslow (New Left Review, Issue 112, July-August 2018). “Reverberations of the October Revolution on the far shore of the North Pacific, as Wobblies, loggers and shipyard workers rally to the general strike of 1919.” Also online with the title: Seattle, “the Soviet of Washington” (Jacobin, October 3, 2018).

When workers ran Seattle: Lessons from the 1919 General Strike. By Whitney Kahn and Tony Wilsdon (Socialist Alternative, August 20, 2017). “It lasted a mere five days and ended in retreat, but it would have a lasting impression and legacy that would inspire many workers for decades to come.”

The US national steel strike, 1919 (Libcom.org, Juli 22, 2013). “This text has been excerpted from Jeremy Brecher’s excellent book, Strike! (1972) and very slightly edited to make sense as a stand-alone text by Libcom.org … Jeremy Brecher’s history and analysis of the huge strike across the steel industry in 1919, which was defeated by a combination of massive repression and undermining by the unions.”

Seattle: The 1919 General Strike. By Darrin Hoop (International Socialist Review, Issue 84, June 2012). Review of Harvey O’Connor, Revolution in Seattle: A Memoir (Haymarket Books, 2009, 300 p.). “First published by Monthly Review Press in 1964 in the ferment of a new generation of radicals, this gripping account of working-class solidarity and union power in the Pacific Northwest went out of print and was republished by Haymarket Books in 2009.”

The Seattle general strike of 1919 (Libcom.org, December 21, 2009). “The detailed official history of the strike, in which the city was taken over by the workers, by the History Committee of the General Strike Committee, March 1919 with a preface from Root and Branch in 1972.”

See also:

1919: the year the world was on fire. By Steve Fraser (Jacobin, 13 January 2019). “One hundred years ago was a time of revolution. Emma Goldman, John Reed, and Bill Haywood were at the center of it all.”


 

19.-22. februar 1919

Første Pan-African Congress, PAC, afholdes samtidig med Versailles-konferencen, arrangeret bl.a. af afro-amerikanske W.E.B. Du Bois. I alt afholdtes 5 kongresser i den oprindelige bevægelse 1919-1945.

A session of the Pan-African Congress, Paris, February 19-22, 1919. W.E.B. Du Bois er markeret med nr. 4. Image from “Crisis, A Record of the Darker Races” (Vol. 18, No. 1, May 1919). Date: 19 February 1919. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain.
A session of the Pan-African Congress, Paris, February 19-22, 1919. W.E.B. Du Bois er markeret med nr. 4. Image from “Crisis, A Record of the Darker Races” (Vol. 18, No. 1, May 1919). Date: 19 February 1919. Photo: Unknown. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Links:

Vi må genoplive den revolutionære ånd. Af Kehinde Andrews (Information.dk, 21. oktober 2015). “70-året for den afgørende femte Panafrikanske Kongres i denne uge er en oplagt mulighed for at gentænke nogle af de revolutionære idealer, som fortiden så brutalt tog livet af.”

The long march to post-capitalist transition: Pan-Africanist perspectives. By Ameth Lô (Marxist Essays and Commentary, August 22, 2018). “… the international Communist movement and pan-Africanism, established strong ties, forged through suffering and resistance.”

Pan-Africanism and Communism (Review of African Political Economy, 26 January 2017). “In a major interview Hakim Adi discusses his research, activism and politics. Adi has spent years researching the African diaspora, Pan-Africanism and communism in the 20th century.” See another interview with Hakim Adi (with the same title!) (Salvage, March 2, 2018) + Ken Olende: The Comintern and the African Atlantic (International Socialism, Issue 145, Winter 2015). Review of Hakim Adi, Pan-Africanism and Communism: The Communist International, Africa and the Diaspora, 1919-1939 (Africa World Press, 2013, 445 p.).

Planning the end of Europe’s empires. By Ken Olende (Socialist Worker, Issue 2475, 13 October 2015). “In 1945 Pan-African nationalists met in Manchester to debate the fight against racism and imperialism.”

The Pan-African Congress in black and white. By Nana Yaa Mensah (New Statesman, 7 August 2015). “Photographs of the 1945 Pan-African Congress in Manchester tell a complex tale of postwar black independence movements.”

Reflections on Pan-Africanism, Part I-II. By C.L.R. James (Marxists Internet Archive). Transcript of speech given on November 20-21, 1973.

Se også / see also:

Marxism and Anti-Imperialism in Africa (Section) (Marxists Internet Archive), incl.: George Padmore (ed.): Colonial and coloured unity: A programme of action. History of the Pan-African Congress (London, 1947, 79 p.).

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 23. februar 1868, om W.E.B. Du Bois.


 

2.-6. marts 1919

Long Live the Third Kommunist International
Long Live the Third Kommunist International

Dannelsen af Kommunistisk Internationale (1. Kongres) i Moskva.

På dansk:

In English

Se også:

Lenin’s Comintern revisited: Index (Marxist Essays and Commentaries, December 31, 2017). Articles by John Riddell, 2007-2018.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

10. marts 1919

Den polsk-tyske revolutionær (og kortvarigt formand for Tysklands Kommunistiske Parti, KPD, Leo Jogiches myrdes i Berlin i politiets varetægt.
(Født i Vilnius, nuv. Lithuen, 17. juli 1867, se denne dato )


 

21. marts 1919

Udråbelsen af Sovjetrepublikken i Ungarn under ledelse af Bela Kun. (Rådsrepublikken varer til 1. august 1919). Kommissær for kultur var György Lukács (se Tidslinjen 4. juni 1971).

Béla Kun, leader of the 1919 Hungarian Revolution. Photo: Hungarian photographer. Public domain.
Béla Kun, leader of the 1919 Hungarian Revolution. Photo: Hungarian photographer. Public domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

Lenin’s Boys: A short history of Soviet Hungary (Cosmonaut, 21 August 2020). “Doug Enaa Greene on the Hungarian Soviet Republic and its tragic defeat.”

Painting Budapest Red. By Bob Dent (Jacobin, March 31, 2019). “In March 1919, Hungary saw the creation of a short-lived revolutionary state. We look at the significance of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, and its attempted transformation of art and culture.”

Hungary 1919: 133 days of workers’ rule. By John Cunningham (Workers’ Liberty, 12 August 2004). “For a few months in early 1919 a workers’ government ruled in Hungary.”

The Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919: the forgotten revolution. By Alan Woods (In Defence of Marxism, 12 November 1979). “On March 21st, 1919, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed. On the 1st of August, 133 days later, this heroic chapter in the history of the Hungarian working class was brought to a close with the entry of the White Rumanian army into Budapest.”

1918: The Hungarian Revolution (Libcom.org, 3 September, 2006). “The history of the revolution which brought down the monarch and saw workers’ and peasants’ councils spring up across the country, only to be betrayed by its social democratic and Communist ‘leadership’.”


 

10. april 1919

Den revolutionær mexicanske bondeleder Emiliano Zapata myrdes.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: Zapata og den mexicanske revolution


 

13. april 1919

Amritsar-massakren i Indien, hvor den britiske general Dyer gav ordre til at beskyde en folkemængde på 20.000, med op til 1.000 døde.

 

Scene fra Richard Attenborough’s filmGandhi” (1983) (YouTube, 7:15 min.). Jallianwala Bagh massacren.

Se:

Jallianwala Bagh massacre (Wikipedia.org). Engelsk leksikal artikel med links til norsk og svensk m.m.

State terrorism and the British Empire: The Amritsar Massacre, 1919 (Counterfire, April 12, 2019). “Marking the centenary of one of the most grotesque atrocities in the history of British imperialism, John Westmoreland revisits the Amritsar Massacre.”

Amritsar—A very British massacre (Socialist Worker, Issue 2649, 9 April 2019). “Hundreds killed, thousands injured and bodies piled on top of each other. Socialist Worker tells the story of one of the bloodiest crimes committed by the British Empire in India.”

100 years ago: British massacre hundreds in Punjab (World Socialist Web Site, 8 April 2019). “The massacre was horrific. The crowd was not ordered to disperse, and Colonel Dyer’s troops fired without warning.” Scroll down.

Jallianwala Bagh revisited. By Praveen Swami (Frontline, Vol.14, No.22, November 1-14, 1997). “A look at the actual history of one of the most shocking events of the independence struggle.”

O’Dwyer, the butcher of Amritsar, meets his fate in London. By Sherman Stanley (Socialist Appeal, Vol. IV No. 12, 23 March 1940). “Last week a young Sikh student interrupted a meeting … to put two bullets in the heart of Sir Michael O’Dwyer, former Governor General of India’s province of the Punjab.”

Se også:

Tidslinjen: 15. august 1947, om Indiens selvstændighed.

 


2. maj 1919

Den bayerske rådsrepublik bliver militært nedkæmpet af den tyske centralregering.
I tiden efter bliver bla. Eugen Levine dødsdømt og henrettet (se Tidslinjen 10. maj 1883).

When the Communists ruled in Bavaria. By Florian Keller (In Defence of Marxism, No.34, p.22-30). See video intro (Socialist Appeal, 14 July 2021, 1 min.): ” … introduces the rich lessons of one of the most inspiring events that occurred during the revolutionary wave in Germany in 1918, where the working class seized power in Munich and the surrounding towns in Bavaria, southern Germany.”

“The Bavarian Soviet Republic”. Chapter 7 in Chris Harman: The Lost Revolution: Germany 1918-1923 (Bookmarks, 1982, p.125-143)

Se også:

The Workers’ Council Movement in Western Europe. By Donny Gluckstein (International Socialism, Issue 18, Winter 1983, p.1-29; online at Marxist’s Internet Archive). Chapter: “Germany”, p.18-22.


 

3. maj 1919

Folkesangeren Peter (Pete) Seeger fødes i New York City, USA. (Død i New York, 27. januar 2014)

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Personresursen: Pete Seeger 1919-2014 – Nekrologer


 

“8 timers arbejde, 8 timers frihed, 8 timers hvile” var fagbevægelsens slagord i mange år. Det lykkedes først i 1920 at få den daglige arbejdstid ned på 8 timer. Man arbejdede også om lørdagen dengang, så arbejdstiden kom ned på 48 timer om ugen. I dag er arbejdstiden kommet ned på 37 timer om ugen, og man har fri om lørdagen..ABA/Arbejdermuseet
“8 timers arbejde, 8 timers frihed, 8 timers hvile” var fagbevægelsens slagord i mange år. Det lykkedes først i 1920 at få den daglige arbejdstid ned på 8 timer. Man arbejdede også om lørdagen dengang, så arbejdstiden kom ned på 48 timer om ugen. I dag er arbejdstiden kommet ned på 37 timer om ugen, og man har fri om lørdagen. ABA/Arbejdermuseet.

17. maj 1919

8-timers arbejdsdagen aftales ved overenskomsten, med virkning – og undtagelser – fra 1. januar 1920.

Se:

Weekendbevægelsen og den otte timers arbejdsdag: kampen for den engelske uge (Konfront.dk, 7. juni 2019). “Tusinder af arbejdere nedlagde arbejdet hver lørdag i 6 måneder for at kræve en forkortet arbejdsdag.”

Plakathistorie: 8-Timers-Arbejdsdagen… fastsat ved Lov? Af Dorte Ellesøe (SFAH, 2019). “Den hidtil eneste kendte plakat fra den første 1. maj-demonstration i 1890 lignede det opråb, som avisen Social-Demokraten bragte på forsiden denne torsdag morgen.”

De tog – De fik – De Otte Timer (pdf). Af Poul Vitus Nielsen (Årbog for arbejderbevægelsens historie, nr. 22, 1992, side 263-314). “Arbejdsgivere og arbejdere, socialdemokrater og syndikalister i kampen om 8 timers arbejdsdagen.”

Første maj og ottetimers-dagen (pdf). Af Morten Thing. I: 1. maj 1890: et dokumentarium. Red. Flemming Hemmersam og Morten Thing (Selskabet til Arbejderbevægelsens Historie, 1990, side 273-283; online på RUC) (SFAH Skriftserie, 22).

1. maj demonstration i 1900. Efter beslutninger på en international kongres i 1889 om at fejre 1. maj som international kamp- og festdag måtte de danske arbejdere under trussel om afskedigelse i de første år holde demonstrationen på den nærmeste søndag. Men fra slutningen af 1890'erne accepterede arbejdskøberne, at arbejderne kunne få fri på selve dagen. De 3 otte-taller symboliserer kampen for 8 timer arbejde, fritid og hvile. ABA.
1. maj demonstration i 1900. Efter beslutninger på en international kongres i 1889 om at fejre 1. maj som international kamp- og festdag måtte de danske arbejdere under trussel om afskedigelse i de første år holde demonstrationen på den nærmeste søndag. Men fra slutningen af 1890’erne accepterede arbejdskøberne, at arbejderne kunne få fri på selve dagen. De 3 otte-taller symboliserer kampen for 8 timer arbejde, fritid og hvile. ABA.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linksamlingen: Den 1. maj / May Day – historie og traditioner


 

28. juni 1919

Versailles-traktaten underskrives af Første Verdenskrigs sejrherrer, og dikterer Tysklands fredsbetingelser.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: Første Verdenskrig


31. juli 1919

Den italienske forfatter Primo Levi fødes i Torino (dør 11. april 1987 i Torino).

Primo Levi sitting at the desk while reading with a cigarette in his hand - shelves with books in the background, circa 1960. Photo: Anonymous. Public Domain.
Primo Levi sitting at the desk while reading with a cigarette in his hand – shelves with books in the background, circa 1960. Photo: Anonymous. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

På dansk:

Auschwitz har for altid har ændret betingelserne for at være menneske i Europa (Atlas, 30. marts 2019). I anledning af teaterforestilling i Husets Teater (30.3.-20.5.2019): “Primo Levis voldsomme tekst er en man kan konfrontere sig med, snarere end én man kan læse, skriver Jens Albinus om sit arbejde med ‘Hvis dette er et menneske’.” Se  anmeldelse af Klaus Rothstein: I som lever i sikkerhed… (Weekendavisen, 12. april 2013; online på Rothstein.dk) + anmeldelse af Morten Ranum: Hvad er et menneske? (Solidaritet.dk, 24. april 2019).

Hvis dette er et menneske. Af Morten Thing (Giraffen, nr. 10, maj 1993, s. 10-11). Om Primo Levis forfatterskab, der bygger på erfaringerne fra hans tid i udryddelseslejren i Auschwitz, hvor han var fra december 1943 til afslutningen af krigen. Indskannet tekst på Socialistisk Bibliotek.

Den mystificerede slutning. Af Georg Metz (Information.dk, 5. juni 2002). Anmeldelse af  Carole Angier: The Double Bond: Primo Levi – A Biography (Viking, 2002, 898 p.). “For ihærdige læsere af Levi kan man ikke komme uden om denne bog. Det er biografien.”

Articles in English:

Revisiting the life and intellectual legacy of Primo Levi. By Enzo Traverso (Jacobin, April 11, 2021). “The author, anti-fascist partisan, and Nazi death camp survivor Primo Levi died on this day in 1987. His life and the cautious Enlightenment ideology he advanced in his work, Enzo Traverso writes, told the story of the twentieth century and its battles.”

Primo Levi and the unquenchable human spirit. By Henry Maitles (Socialist Worker, Issue 2045, 7 April 2007). “Primo Levi, who gave us some of the strongest eyewitness accounts of the Holocaust, died 20 years ago. Henry Maitles looks at his work.”

Writers reviewed: Primo Levi. By Paul O’Brien (Socialist Review, Issue 204, January 1997). “The two books which he wrote in 1947, If This is a Man and The Truce … are now regarded as classics.”

Cutting the wire: a critical appraisal of Primo Levi (International Socialism, No. 59, Summer 1993, p.97-106).(p.t. ikke online*) By Henry Maitles ..”sensitive account of Levi’s life and works looks at the interaction between his art and his experience as a concentration camp victim.” * under construction: Marxists Internet Archive (June 2021).

A Man Saved By His Skills. By Philip Roth (New York Times, October 12, 1986). Also published as “A conversation with Primo Levi”. In: Survival In Auschwitz – The Nazi Assault on Humanity (“Originally … title: “If This Is a Man”). By Primo Levi (Simon and Schuster, 1996, p.175-187)

Bogomslag til italienske udgaver af Primo Levi-bøger om KZ-lejre, «Trilogía de Auschwitz». Design: Lucrecia Demaestri/Planeta Arte & Diseño. Illustration: Adrià Fruitós.
Bogomslag til italienske udgaver af Primo Levi-bøger om KZ-lejre, «Trilogía de Auschwitz». Design: Lucrecia Demaestri/Planeta Arte & Diseño. Illustration: Adrià Fruitós.

 

Litteratur af Primo Levi på dansk:

  • Vidnesbyrd (Rosinante, 2009, 522 s.)
  • Samtaler og interview 1963-1987 (Forum, 2003, 329 s.)
  • Natteheksen Lilit og andre beretninger (Forum, 1994, 156 s.)
  • De druknede og de frelste (Forum, 1992, 167 s.)
  • Tøbruddet (Forum, 1991, 197 s.)
  • Hvis dette er et menneske (Forum, 1989, 201 s.)
  • Det periodiske system: 21 historier om kemi og mennesker (Forum, 1987, 221 s.)
  • Om ikke nu, hvornår så? (Forum, 1986, 281 s.)

FrimærkeFrimærke udgivet 25 år erfter Primo Levis død

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

23. august 1919

Den amerikanske venstrefløjsaktivist og skribent om race/klasse, Theodore W.(William) Allen, fødes i Indianaplis, Indiana. (Dør i Brooklyn, New York, 19. januar 2005, se denne)


 

31. august 1919
1919clp.gif

Regnes for fødselsdagen for USA’s kommunistiske parti: Communist Labor Party of America (CLP) afholder kongres 31.8.-5.9. i Chicago, da de taber kampen i Socialist Party of America (SPA).
Communist Party of America (CPA) (“old” Communist Party) afholder stiftende kongres i samme by den 1. september 1919.
15. maj 1921 forenes de i The Communist Party of America, Section of the Communist International (a.k.a. “unified CPA”).

Leksikale / Encyclopedias:

Sites:

Communist Party of America, 1919-1946 (Marxists Internet Archive). Publications – Officials – Membership.

The Communist (1919-1921) (Marxists Internet Archive). “An American radical newspaper, the official voice of the nascent American communist movement.”

Articles:

The Romance of American Communism. By Alan Wald (International Viewpoint, 29 June 2020). Review Vivian Gornick’s book (Verso, 2020, 288 p.). “[A] collective oral history of mostly middle-aged former members of the CPUSA, rereleased by Verso with a new introduction by the author.” See also review by Laura Tanebaum: The humanity of American Communism (Jacobin, May 20, 2020) + review by John Newsinger (Socialist Review, Issue 456, April 2020) + review by Hannah Proctor (Jacobin, April 10, 2020) + interview with Vivian Gornick (Jacobin, July 25, 2020).

100 years of U.S. Communism. By Alan Wald (Against the Current, Issue 204, January-February 2020). “Nonetheless, certain achievements of the CP-USA remain a reservoir of hope that nourishes us to meet the daunting challenges of the Trump era. At its 100th anniversary, there may be more to praise than bury.”

How the Russian Revolution reshaped the U.S. socialist movement. By Todd Chretien (Marxist Essays and Commentary, November 8, 2017). “This essay challenges the notion that Bolshevik influence in the United States constituted ‘foreign interference’, as liberals and conservatives at the time and after contended.”

The Popular Front didn’t work. By Charlie Post (Jacobin, 17 October 2017). “The Communist Party’s 1930s popular front strategy weakened the labor movement and empowered the Democratic Party.”

American Communism and the Communist International. By Dan La Botz (New Politics, February 27, 2015). Review of Jacob A. Zumoff, The Communist International and US Communism, 1919-1929 (Brill, 2014, 443 p.). See interview with Jacob A. Zumoff: The party and black liberation (Jacobin, August 18, 2015) + review by Sarah Grey: The early years of US Communism (International Socialist Review, Issue 99, Winter 2015-16) + review by Ted McTaggart: Early U.S. Communism revisited (Against the Current, Issue 184, September-October 2016).

Rethinking the historiography of United States Communism (pdf). By Bryan D. Palmer (American Communist History, Vol.2, No.2, 2003, p.139-173). “The history of America’s revolutionary left, in its origins and in the uneasyformative years of Communism’s US birth, can not be understood, I suggest,without attention to the ways in which it was transformed by Stalinism in the 1920s.”

Revising the history of cold war liberals. By Julius Jacobson (New Politics, Vol.7, No.4, Winter 2000; online at Internet Archive). “… those revisionist historians who fantasize about a Communist Party that never was.”

The Popular Front: Rethinking CPUSA History. By Charlie Post (Against the Current, Issue 63, July-August 1996, p.22-32). “The popular front strategy of the 1930s and 1940s, like the social-democratic strategy of today, is profoundly utopian.” See also Ernie Haberkern: On the CP-USA and the unions + Charlie Post: On the Labor bureaucracy (Issue 68, May-June 1997).

The Soviet Union is dead: The ‘Russian Question’ remains. Part I: The Communist past – myth & reality. By Julius Jacobson (New Politics, Vol.5, No.2, Winter 1995, p.125-167; online at Internet Archive). “The Russian Question loomed so large in our political (and personal) lives precisely because, among other reasons, it did relate to building and advancing progressive and radical causes in the U.S.”

Communism in the heart of the beast. By Lee Sustar (International Socialism, Issue 68, Autumn 1995, p.81-92). Review of Michael E Brown, Randy Martin, Frank Rosengarten and George Snedeker (eds), New Studies in the Politics and Culture of US Communism (Monthly Review Press, 1993). “This collection of new CP historians and others is a strong challenge to the liberal anti-Communist historians of the CP. But the usefulness of the book is that it highlights a much more important debate within the US left over the CP.”

The first days of American Communism. By James P. Cannon (Fourth International, February 1944). “Reprinted below is the first chapter of James P. Cannon’s new book The History of American Trotskyism, scheduled for early spring publication by Pioneer Publishers.”

Books:

The Roots of American Communism. By Theodore Draper (Transaction Publisher, 2003, 498 p.; online at Libcom.org). First edition 1957. “It’s an important book, well-written, fully documented and objective.” See also:

  • What was great about Theodore Draper and what was not (American Communist History, Vol.8, No.1, 2009; online at Libcom.org). “An article by Bryan D. Palmer about the different camps of viewing the American Communist Party’s history.”
  • The Roots of American Communism. By James P. Cannon (International Socialist Review, Vol.18, No.3, Summer 1957, p.96-100; online at Marxists Internet Archive). Review of Theodore Draper’s book (Viking Press, 1957) + American Communism and Soviet Russia (International Socialist Review, Vol.22, No.1, Winter 1961). Review of Theodore Draper’s book (Viking Press, 1960).
  • Letters to a historian (1954–1956). By James P. Cannon (Marxists Internet Archive). “These articles from the magazines Fourth International and International Socialist Review are based on letters Cannon wrote to Theodore Draper who was then researching his two-volume series on the history of the US Communist Party.”

History of the Communist Party of the United States. By William Z. Foster (The entire 1952 International Publishers Book; online at Williamzfoster.blogspot.dk).

Bibliography:

American Communism and Anticommunism: A historian’s bibliography and guide to the literature. Compiled and edited by John Earl Haynes, last revised 18 February 2009 (John Earl Heynes Historical Writings).


 

22. oktober 1919

Den britiske forfatter Doris Lessing fødes i Kamanshah, Iran. Nobelpris 2007. Dør i London, 17. november 2013, se denne.


 

9. november 1919

Dannelsen af Venstresocialistisk Parti (VSP). DKP’s – Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti – officielle fødselsdag.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten: Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, DKP

VSP/DKPs stifter og første formand, senere socialdemokratisk minister, Ernst Christiansen, her blandt ungsocialister i 1915 (24 år gammel) i Bern. Kilde: https://www.arbejdermuseet.dk/viden-samlinger/kildepakker/socialdemokratiet-verdenskrig-og-revolution/
VSP/DKPs stifter og første formand, senere socialdemokratisk minister, Ernst Christiansen, her blandt ungsocialister i 1915 (24 år gammel) i Bern (stående, nr. 3 fra venstre). Kilde: Arbejdermuseet.

 

19. november 1919

Den italienske filminstruktør Gillo Pontecorvo fødes (dør 12.10.2006), instruktør af filmen Slaget om Algier (La Battaglia di Algeri), 1966. And  Queimada! / Burn! (1969)

The Italian director Gillo Pontecorvo on the set of Queimada (1969). Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

Gillo Pontecorvo (Wikipedia.org). With bibliography and filmography.

Gillo Pontecorvo, 1919-2006: A director committed to change. By Tom Behan (Socialist Worker, Issue 2023, 21 October 2006)

Gillo Pontecorvo, Italian director of The Battle of Algiers, dead at 86. A 2004 interview (World Socialist Web Site, 18 October 2006)

A Marxist poet: the legacy of Gillo Pontecorvo. By Alexander Billet (MRZine, 19/10/06)

‘Stay close to reality’. By Maria Esposito (World Socialist Web Site, 9 June 2004). Interview with Gillo Pontecorvo.

Film online:

på YouTube.com:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

 


20. november 1919

Kommunistisk Ungdoms Internationale (YCI) dannes med første kongres i Berlin.

1919 plakat fra YCI (1938). Kilde: Source: <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Poster_of_Azerbaijan_1938._Komsomol.jpg">Wikimedia Commons</a>.
1919 plakat fra YCI (1938). Kilde: Wikimedia Commons.

Young Communist International (Wikipedia.org)

The Communist International and the Communist Youth Movement (Marxists Internet Archive). Resolution from the Third Congress of the Communist International (1921).

100 years of the Communist Youth International. By Nathaniel Flakin (Left Voice, November 20, 2019). “[The]  organizations played a leading role in the resistance against World War One, fighting against both bourgeois governments and their own party’s reformist leaders.”


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