Maleren og digteren Gustaf Munch-Petersen dør i den spanske borgerkrig, Sansynlige dødsdag 2. april 1938. Billedet 'En Død Mand Drømmer' (udsnit), Se 2. april 1938 nedenfor.
Maleren og digteren Gustaf Munch-Petersen dør i den spanske borgerkrig, Sansynlige dødsdag 2. april 1938. Billedet 'En Død Mand Drømmer' (udsnit), Se 2. april 1938 nedenfor.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1938.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

 

11. februar 1938

1938CurtSoerensen_2A_3_-2.jpgDen danske politolog, venstrefløjs-debatør og professor ved Aarhus Universitet, Curt Sørensen fødes i …

Litteratur:

Den europæiske deltagelseskrise: Stormagtspolitik, massedeltagelse og ideologi i det 20. århundrede. Af Curt Sørensen (Frydenlund, 2017, 1012 sider).
Se anmeldelse af Svend Vestergaard Jensen: 1000 siders tung bog rammer plet (Socialistisk Information, 16. september 2017).

Stat, nation, klasse: socioøkonomisk udvikling, stats- og nationsbygning og udvikling af regimeformer og massepolitik i Central- og Østeuropa samt Rusland. Bind 1-3. Af Curt Sørensen (Frydenlund, 2012-2014, 1079 + 1229 + 822 sider).
Se redigeret uddrag af 3-bindsværket: Historiske materialisme og struktur/aktør-dialektik (Modkraft.dk, 7. november 2014) + Stat, Nation, Klasse – historien som voldsomme og modsætningsfulde forløb. Demokratiets omtvistelighed og skrøbelighed. Af Curt Sørensen (Modkraft.dk, Blog, 23. oktober 2014; også online på Kritisk Debat).
Anmeldelser:


 

2.-13. marts 1938

Den tredje af de store Moskva-processer – processen mod de 21 – finder sted: processen mod ‘blokken af højre og trotskister’, med bl.a. Bukharin, Rykov og tidl. NKVD-chef Jagoda.

Se:

The Case of Bukharin. Recorded: March 5 – March 12 1938; Source: “The Case of the Anti-Soviet Block of Rights and Trotskyites”, Red Star Press, 1973, page 369-439, 767-779; (Marxists Internet Archive; Nikolai Bukharin Archive)

Nikolai Bukharin 1888-1938. By Ken Coates (The Socialist Register 1978, p.44-55). “By extending the web of this plot to implicate Bukharin and Rykov, a final amalgamation was thus charged against former oppositions of both Right and Left, and the effect was to establish that henceforth no ‘loyal’ opposition was in fact possible.”

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen 19.-24. august 1936 om alle tre processer og terrorperioden.
Tidslinjen 15. marts 1938 om Nikolaj Bukharin.


 

12. marts 1938

Tyske troppers indmarch i Østrig markerer indlemmelsen (“tilslutningen”/Anschluss).

Anschluss 1938anschluss.jpg(Denstoredanske.dk)

Anschluss (Wikipedia.org). Længere fremhævet engelsk artikel.

Anschluss (Österreich) (Wikipedia.de). Længere tysk artikel.


 

1938bukharin.jpg

15. marts 1938

Likvidering af bl.a. Nikolaj Bukharin fra processen mod de 21, den såkaldte tredje proces (se ovenfor 2.-13. marts 1938).
(Født 9.10.1888 i Moskva). Formand for Kommunistisk Internationale 1927-29. Rehabiliteret 1988.

Se:

Om processen mod Bukharin mfl. (3. Moskva-proces), se ovenfor 2. marts 1938.

Nikolai Bukharin: ‘The favourite of the whole party’’. By Doug Enaa Greene (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, February 13, 2015). “Bukharin was one of the leading theorists and leaders of the Bolshevik Party, reaching the heights of power in the USSR in the 1920s.”

Last writings of the party favourite. By Donny Gluckstein (International Socialism, Issue 116, Autumn 2007, p.188-191). Review of Nikolai Bukharin, Socialism and its Culture (Berg, 2007). “This manuscript is part of a series of works, including a novel and philosophical treatise, which Bukharin wrote while awaiting trial and inevitable execution at Moscow’s notorious Lubyanka prison.”

Att bevaras för evigt (pdf). Av Stephen F. Cohen (Arkiv, nr.66, 1996; online på Marxistarkiv.se). “Bucharins biograf diskuterar bl a utifrån de nya uppgifter som kommit fram ur de sovjetiska arkiven.”

Hero and villain? By Rob Ferguson (International Socialism, Issue 64, Autumn 1994, p.115-121). Review of Donny Gluckstein, The Tragedy of Bukharin (Pluto Press, 1994, 293 p.). “The book restores Bukharin himself to his rightful place – as an often brilliant, if flawed, revolutionary theorist whose achievements and failures are so instructive to those who aspire to fight for the cause to which he dedicated his life.”

The resurrection of Nikolai Bukharin. By Mike Haynes (International Socialism, Issue 2, Autumn 1978, p.11-34). På svensk: Nikolaj Bucharins återuppståndelse (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, maj 2014). “a genuine resurrection of Bukharin demands more than a campaign, more than uncritical adulation, it demands a thorough re-examination of the Soviet experience and his role in it.”

Nikolai Bukharin 1888-1938. By Ken Coates (The Socialist Register 1978, p.44-55). “By extending the web of this plot to implicate Bukharin and Rykov, a final amalgamation was thus charged against former oppositions of both Right and Left, and the effect was to establish that henceforth no ‘loyal’ opposition was in fact possible.”

Bukharin tegnede også karrikatur-tegninger, her af Stalin 1929.
Bukharin tegnede også karrikatur-tegninger, her af Stalin 1929.

Bukharin’s last years. By Roy Medvedev (New Left Review, Issue 109, May-June 1978). Only abstract. På svensk: Bucharins sista år (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se). Only extract online in English.

Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution. By Ken Tarbuck (International, Vol.3, No.4, Summer 1977). Review of Stephen F. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography 1888–1938 (Wildwood House, 1974, 495 p.): “The biography of Bukharin by Stephen F. Cohen fills a gap and has been much needed; from this point of view the book is very welcome.”

Se en samling af Bukharin-tegninger af 8 politbureau-medlemmer.

The return of Bukharin. By Peter Sedgwick (International Socialism, Issue 75, February 1975, p.16-20) + A note of qualification, by Duncan Hallas (ibid.). Review of Stephen F. Cohen’ biography. På svensk: Bucharins återkomst (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se). “Despite the rare scholarship and historical excitement of Stephen Cohen’s biography, its political line actually acclaims Bukharin’s weaknesses and errors as magnificent virtues.”

Bukharinism, revolution and social development. By Marcel Liebman (Socialist Register, 1975, p.75-94). Review of Stephen F. Cohen’s biography. På svensk: Bucharinism, revolution och samhällsutveckling (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se). “Stephen Cohen’s book Bukharin and the Russian evolution’ confronts Marxists with a personage, an ideology and an interpretation of history which not only present serious problems but even constitute a kind of challenge to them.”

Bucharinism mot trotskism (1975) (pdf). Av Tamara Deutscher (Marxistarkiv.se). Anmeldelse af Stephen F. Cohens biografi: “Cohen har lagt ner många års samvetsgrant arbete på att skriva denna imponerande bok.”

Legenden om Bucharin (1974) (pdf). Av E.H. Carr (Marxistarkiv se). Anmeldelse af Stephen F. Cohens biografi: “Den unge amerikanska forskaren Stephen Cohen har hyllat kulten av Bucharin … genom att skriva den första vetenskapliga, fullständiga biografin om Bucharin på engelska, och troligen på något annat språk.” Se også bogen i svensk udgave: Bucharin och den ryska revolutionen (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se).

Litteratur:

Også en dråbe af mit blod: erindringer om Nikolaj Bukharin. Af Anna Larina Bukharina (Forlaget Sputnik, 1981, 488 sider)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten Den Russiske Revolution 100 år
Emnelisten Den Russiske Revolution, fra februar – oktober 1917


 

16. marts 1938

Premiere i Palads på den danske film Kongen Bød (‘Stavnsbaandsfilmen’), i anledning af 150 året for Stavnsbåndets ophævelse.

Hovbønderne i kornmarken. Fra optagelserne til stavnsbåndsfilmen "Kongen bød" fra 1938 i Bjergene med Vejrhøj og de store bakker som baggrund.Hovbønderne i kornmarken. Fra optagelserne til stavnsbåndsfilmen “Kongen bød” fra 1938 i Bjergene med Vejrhøj og de store bakker som baggrund. Optagelser foretaget i august 1937. Kilde: Lokalarkivet i Vig 2017

Se:

  • Kongen Bød (Det Danske Filminstitut)
  • Rødding Biograf “der reklamerer for filmen “Kongen bød”, også kendt som Stavnsbåndfilmen” (Arkiv.dk)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

1938 Royal Copenhagen Mindeplatte, Frihedsstøtten, KONGEN BØD STAVNSBAANDET SKAL OPHØRE 1788 -1938. Design: Richard Bøcher. Kilde: http://www.dphtrading.dk/produkter/platter/rnr2831938 Royal Copenhagen Mindeplatte, Frihedsstøtten, KONGEN BØD STAVNSBAANDET SKAL OPHØRE 1788 -1938. Design: Richard Bøcher. Kilde: http://www.dphtrading.dk/produkter/platter/rnr283


 

2. april 1938

Sandsynlige dødsdag for maleren og digteren Gustaf Munch-Petersen nær Gendesa i Katalonien under den spanske borgerkrig. (Født 18. april 1912 i København, som søn af den akademiske pioner Valfrid Palmgren Munch-Petersen).

En Munch-Petersen til – og heller ikke kedelig: Fra Arabiens Hede til Grønlands Kulde (Ekstra Bladet, 25 september, 1933; online på Sentura). Digteren og Verdens-Vagabonden Gustaf Munch-Petersen om sin nye bog og om sine Vandringer i Nord og Syd.

Video:

Skyggen af en helt. Af Laurits Munch-Petersen (Filmcentralen, 2015, 80 min., DK/Dokumentarfilm, danske tekster). “En familiehistorie om at se fortiden i øjnene … barnebarnet forsøger at samle familien – igen.”

Litteratur:

Gustav Munch-Petersen: Samlede skrifter. Bd. 1-2. Ved Torben Brostrøm. (Borgens Forlag, 1967, 21 + 176 sider)

Gustaf Munch-Petersen – og den spanske borgerkrig. Af Ole Sohn (Forlaget Sohn, 2007, 181 sider)

Malerier og digte: Gustav Munch-Petersen. Red. af Martine Cardel Gertsen og Erik Hagens (Forlaget Sohn, 2008, 175 sider)

Gustafs ansigter – Selvfremstilling i Gustaf Munch-Petersens forfatterskab. Af Martine Cardel Gertsen (Makadam Förlag, 2003, 382 sider).

Anmeldelser:

Den ubesindige død. Af Klaus Rifbjerg (Politiken.dk, 29. marts 2008)
Gustav Munch-Petersens malerier og digte. Af Bjarne Nielsen (Arbejderen, 31. marts 2008)
Digteren, der ikke vil dø. Af Kristen Bjørnkjær (Information.dk, 15.april 2008)

1938gustavmaleri.jpgGM-Ps surrealistiske maleri “Død Mand drømmer” (1934/35)

Se også:

  • Valfrid Palmgren Munch-Petersen (Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon)
  • Digitaliseret digtlæsning: Om nogle muligheder i internetbaseret litteraturformidling med Gustaf Munch-Petersens forfatterskab som eksempel (pdf). Af Martine Cardel Gertsen (Fund og Forskning; Det Konglige Bibliotek, bd. 46, 2006, s.215-251)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

13. april 1938

Ferielov og funktionærlov vedtages.

Se:


 

25. april 1938

George Orwell får udgivet bogen Homage to Catalonia (Secker and Warburg; copyright date: April 25, 1938). Dansk udgave: Hyldest til Catalonien (Gyldendal, 1975, 231 sider)

Se:

1938homage-2.bmp

Spain through Orwell’s eyes. By Jared Spears (Jacobin: Reason in Revolt, 5 januaryy 2017). “Eighty years ago, Barcelona’s calamitous May Days sealed the fate of a worker-led social revolution. George Orwell was there to bear witness.”

Homage to Orwell. By Mike Hume (Spiked Review of Books, No.68, May 2013). “Revisiting George Orwell’s classic account of the Spanish Civil War, 75 years on.”

Orwell in the maze of memory. By Victor Pardo Lancina (Against the Current, Issue 148, September-October 2010). “The book did poorly in the marketplace, however, and Orwell died on 21 January 1950 in London, wasted by tuberculosis, without ever having seen a new cleaned-up version.”

Remembering Spain’s Revolution. By Jane Slaughter (Against the Current, Issue 143, November-December 2009). “Orwell’s portrait of revolutionary Spain gives us a glimpse of human beings’ revolutionary and egalitarian potential and their capacity for bravery. That is why, 70 years later, Homage to Catalonia is worth reading for the first time and again.”

Orwell Centenary: No Pasaran (Socialist Review, Issue 276, July-August 2003). “Andy Durgan describes the impact of revolutionary Spain on Orwell.”

Documenting the Spanish Civil War. By Chris Hickey (Solidarity, 3/33, 26 June 2003). “Homage to Catalonia, in which Orwell bore witness to the murder of the Spanish Revolution, was the product of this defining period of Orwell’s life, at least the literary and political equal of Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four.”

George Orwell’s Homage to Catalonia, Stalinism and the Spanish revolution. By Vicky Short  (World Socialist Web Site, 11 April 2002). “Orwell’s experiences among the Spanish workers, which he so vividly describes in Homage to Catalonia, confirmed for him the counter-revolutionary nature of the Stalinist bureaucracy.”

Orwell and the Spanish Revolution. By John Newsinger (International Socialism, Issue 62, Spring 1994, p.71-90). “Homage to Catalonia is one of the most important celebrations of revolution in English literature. In this account of his experiences with the POUM (United Marxist Workers Party) militia in Spain, he makes clear his commitment to both working class struggle and to socialism, and at the same time his steadfast opposition to Stalinism and its apologists.”

Se også:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

6.-15. juli 1938

32 lande mødes i den franske by Evian for at diskutere den jødiske flygtninge”strøm”  fra forfølgelsen i Nazi-Tyskland.

Leksikalt:

Artikler:

75 years ago: Evian Conference on Fate  of German Jews opens (World Socialist Web Site, 1 July, 2013)

A helping hand to Hitler. By Henry Maitles (Socialist Review, Issue 182, January 1995, p. 22-23). On “… collaboration of Western governments with the Nazi regime and its attacks on Jews.”


 

6.-7. august 1938

2. Nordisk Ungdomsstævne i Aalborg arrangeret af Danmarks kommunistiske Ungdom.

Se:

Film, taler, interview m.m.: Nordisk Ungdomsstævne – august 1938 (Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv)


 

7. august 1938

Socialdemokraternes 6. formand (februar – august 1878) A.C. Meyer dør i Skodsborg (født 11. juni 1858 i København). Agitator, kulturpolitiker, skribent, sangskriver og folketingsmand. Stifter 1886 af “Diskussionsklubben Karl Marx” og i 1905 af De Unges Idræt, DUI.

1938acmyer.jpg

Se:

  • A.C. Meyer (Wikipedia.dk)
  • A.C. Meyer (Dansk Biografisk Leksikon)
  • A.C. Meyer. Af Frejlif Olsen (Wikisource: Danske Socialister. Portrætter og Skildringer/6)
  • A.C. Meyer (Arbejdermuseet; Persongalleri nr. 3)

Den sjette formand: socialistisk agitator. Af Bjarne Nielsen (Arbejderen.dk, 2. maj 2013)

Revolutionære Mænd og Sædelige Kvinder. Af A.C. Meyer (Kvinfo.dk). Debat i Social-Demokraten mellem A.C. Meyer, Anne Bruun og Johanne Meyer, april 1887.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


24. august 1938

Den tyske økonom Elmar Altvater fødes i Kamen, i Ruhrområdet i Nordrhein-Westfalen. Senere professor ved Freies Universität i Berlin (til 2004). Medstifter i 1970 af tidsskriftet PROKLA. Dør 1. maj 2018.

Leksikale:

Nekrologer:

On the vitality of Marxian thought: Elmar Altvater, 1938–2018. By Ulrich Brand (Verso, Blog, 4 May 2018). “Elmar Altvater has died, shortly before his 80th birthday.”

Emil Altvater. Von Alex Demirović (Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung ,2. Mai 2018) “die Linke zur Lösung der großen Fragen der Menschheit beitragen muss.”

Articles by Altvater:

The roots of Neoliberalism (pdf). By Elmar Altvater (Socialist Register 2008, p.346-53). “Yet neoliberal ideas had actually been spreading across the Western world even during the Keynesian ‘golden age’ of capitalism, during which there was a modernization of simple-minded earlier liberal (what might now be seen as ‘paleoliberal’) ideas.”

European integration at the crossroads: deepening or disintegration? By Elmar Altvater and Birgit Mahnkopf (MR Online, June 14, 2011). “In short, the social and cultural rights of trade unions and citizens are being trampled upon, triggering on the one hand applause and on the other social protest.”

A Marxist ecological economics. By Elmar Altvater (Monthly Review, Vol.58, No.8, January 2007). Review of Paul Burkett, Marxism and Ecological Economics: Toward a Red and Green Political Economy (Boston, Brill, 2006). “It is an attempt to bring Marx into the new economic subdiscipline of ecological economics (transforming the latter through the encounter), and at the same time to reexamine Marxist theory from the perspective of ecological economics.”

The Red-Green paint comes off. By Elmar Altvater (MR Online, July 23, 2005). “The opposition against the “pensée unique” [French: mandatory thought, i.e. neoliberalism], against consensus-thinking, and also against the neoliberal one-party-state in yellow, black, red, and green, is more important than ever before in recent German history.”

Financial crises on the threshold of the twenty-first century (pdf). By Elmar Altvater (Socialist Register 1997, p.48-74). “A look at the financial innovations which have taken place in recent decades does in fact show the scale which the privatising bifurcation of money from real economic relations and from ties to political regulation on the globalised markets has attained.”

Socialist politics and the ‘Crisis of Marxism’ (pdf). By Elmar Altvater, Otto Kallscheuer (Socialist Register 1979, p.101-38). “With this provocative challenge at the conference on ‘Power and Opposition in Post-Revolutionary Societies’ organized by Il Mangeso during the Venice Biennale of November 1977 (Il Manifesto, Zuaderno 8, 1978), Louis Althusser introduced a wide-ranging discussion which is documented in all essentials in the present volume.”

Notes on some problems of state interventionism. By Elmar Altvater (Probleme des Klassenkampfs, No.3, May 1972; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “This essay is an attempt to analyze the possibilities and limitations of state interventionism which are present in bourgeois-capitalist society.”

Elmar Altvater Vorlesung Vom Kapitalgetriebenen zum Staatsgetriebenen Kapitalismus Universität Hamburg 2008 (Vimeo, 55:07 min.)

See also:

PROKLA: Zeitschrift für kritische Sozialwissenschaft (site). Oprindeligt: PRObleme des KLAssenkampfs (fra 1975: Zeitschrift für politische Ökonomie und sozialistische Politik). Online på Volltext Arhciv 1971 –

Litteratur på dansk:


 

3. september 1938

193897px-Logo_of_the_Fourth_International.jpg30 delegerede stifter den Fjerde Internationale i Péregny, Frankrig, i Alfred Rosmers hjem. På grund af forfølgelsen især fra den stalinistiske stat og bevægelse, mødtes de officielt i Svejts.

Efter at Lev Trotskij havde betegnet den stalinistiske Tredje Internationale, som endegyldigt gået over i kontrarevolutionens lejr og som umuligt at reformere, stiftes 4. Internationale på grundlag af Trotskijs ideer.

På dansk:

In English:

Founding Conference of the Fourth International 1938: Program and
Resolutions (Marxists Internet Archive; The Encyclopedia of Trotskyism On-Line). Also with articles and essays on the events leading up to the Congress.

Section: Toward a history of the Fourth International (Marxists Internet Archive; The Encyclopedia of Trotskyism On-Line)

Documents on the History of the Fourth International (Revolutionary History)

Fourth International (Wikipedia.org)

Seventy-five years of the Fourth International. By David North (World Socialist Web Site, 4 September 2013)

The Fourth International: Keeping the flame alive. By Dan Swain (Socialist Worker, Issue 2190, 27 February 2010)

On the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Fourth International. By David North (World Socialist Web Site, 3 November 2008)

70 years ago: the founding of the Fourth International. By François Sabado (International Viewpoint, Issue 405, October 2008)

Trotskyism. By Alex Callinicos (Buckingham, Open University Press, 1990, 103 p.)

The fate of the Fourth International: 75 years on. By Sean Matgamna (Workers’ Liberty, Issue 11, January 1989)

The reasons for founding the Fourth International. By Ernest Mandel (International Socialist Group, Summer 1988)

Fourth International in decline: From Trotskyism to Pabloism 1944-1953. By Duncan Hallas (International Socialism, No.60, July 1973)

Against the stream: The origins of the Fourth Internationalist movement. By Duncan Hallas (International Socialism, No.53, October-December 1972)

The 4th International is launched. By Max Shachtman (The New International, Vol.4, No.11, November 1938)

Leon Trotsky On the Founding of the Fourth International (audio, 1938) (YouTube.com, 3:50 min.), with full text:

In English & på svenska:

The formative years of the Fourth International (1933-1938). By Daniel Bensaid (Notebooks for Study and Research, No.9, 1988, 48 p.). I svensk udgave: Åren då Fjärde internationalen grundas (1933-38) (Fjärde Internationalen, nr.4, 1988; online på Marxists Internet Archive, Svenska arkivet)

The Fourth International: The long march of the Trotskyists. By Pierre Frank (London, Ink Links, 1979, 189 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive). I svensk udgave: Fjärde Internationalen – ett bidrag till den trotskistiska rörelsens historia (René Coeckelberghs Partisanförlag, 1972; online på Marxists Internet Archive, Svenska arkivet). Se også ny udgave på Resistance Books (2010, 202 p.), med en del ekstra materiale, bl.a. Daniel Bensaid: From 1979 to 2007: Trotskyism: what I knew (p.165-177)

Den långa marschen – Fjärde Internationalens historia (pdf). Av Kenth-Åke Andersson (Mullvaden, nr.10-16, 1972, 28 s.; online på Marxistarkiv.se)

Trotskyism. By Alex Callinicos (Open University Press, 1990, 103 p.; online at Reds – Die Roten)

International Trotskyism 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement. By Robert J. Alexander (Duke University Press, 1991, 1125 p.; at Marxists Internet Archive). With Contents + a few articles online. See the whole book online (pdf) at The Charnel-House.

The new opposition in the post-Mandelite Fourth International. By Martin Thomas, Workers’ Liberty, 9 August 2017). “Review of the new grouping involving Socialist Action (USA), A&R (France), and other groups.”

See also på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

 

30. september 1938

München-aftalen (dateret 29.9.) mellem England, Tyskland, Frankrig og Italien, lægger navn til diplomatisk eftergivenhed og nederlag – især brugt af militarister og højrefløj: Et München.

Se:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

24. oktober 1938

Den amerikanske marxistiske økonom Stephen Resnick fødes (dør i Massachusetts,            2. januar 2013, se denne)


30. oktober 1938

Orson Welles’ radioudgave af H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds (da. Klodernes Kamp) skaber massehysteri i USA.

Se:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Om H.G. Wells: født 21. september 1866, se denne.

1938radio.jpg


 

9. november 1938

“Krystalnatten” i Tyskland: “Natten mellem den 9. og 10. november organiserede regeringen en systematisk ødelæggelse af alle jødiske forretninger, religiøse og kulturelle institutioner.” (Leksikon.org).
Siden 1997 har der i Danmark været fakkeldemonstration(er) mod racisme, fremmedhad og fascisme.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

1938kritallnacht.jpg


 

18. november 1938

Ved valget af første formand – John L. Lewis – splittes den mililtante landsorganisation CIO, Congress of Industrial Organizations, definitivt ud fra AFL – American Federation of Labor. (Forenes igen i 1955).

Se:


 

25. december 1938

Den tjekkiske forfatter Jaroslav Hacek dør. Født 30.april 1883, se denne.


 

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