Den spanske revolution og borgerkrig starter med oprøret mod republikken 17. juli 1936, der medførte arbejderklassens opstand, og 3 års borgerkrig. Foto: Members of the Republican militia in Grañén (Huesca province), September 12, 1936.Kilde: https://elpais.com/elpais/2017/07/03/inenglish/1499089345_261950.html


Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1936.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

1936fremad-2.jpg
Bladliste

Nye blade:

  • Arbejderbladets Ugeblad. [Produceret af Arbejderbladets redaktion]
  • Arbejdet. Organ for Fagoppositionens Sammenslutning i Danmark. Ansv. Chr. Christensen.
  • Fremad. Ungdommens Blad. Udg. af DKU.
  • Neon. Organ for socialdemokratiske Studenter.

Se:

Arbejderhistorisk Bladliste, under året 1936


 

5. februar 1936

1936chaplin.jpg
Charlie Chaplins film Modern Times (Moderne Tider), har premiere i New York.

Se:

Se også på YouTube.com:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen 16. april 1889 om Charlie Chaplin.


 

16. februar 1936

1936valg.jpgDen spanske folkefront vinder 47,3% af stemmerne og danner regering, der i juni blir mødt af en militær opstand under ledelse af Franco.

Spanish general election, 1936 (Wikipedia.org)

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

22. februar 1936

Den danske husmandsdigter Johan Skjoldborg dør. Født 22. april 1861, se denne.


 

7. marts 1936

Hitlers første krænkelse af internationale aftaler: Den tyske hær besætter Rhinland (afmilitariseret område if. Versailles-traktaten efter I.Verdenskrig).
Samme dag mister jøder i Tyskland stemmeretten til rigsdagsvalg.


 

26. april 1936

Generalstrejke i Palæstina mod det britiske besættelsesstyre.

Se:

The birth of Palestinian Resistance and the 1936 uprising. By Neil Rogall (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, September 12, 2014)

75 years ago: Arab-Jewish clashes in Palestine (World Socialist Web Site, 18 April 2011)

The First Palestinian Intifada, 1936-1939. By Rod Quinn (What Next?: Marxist Discussion Journal, No.24, 2002)

The 1936-39 Revolt in Palestine. By Ghassan Kanafani (New York, Committee for a Democratic Palestine, 1972; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

Se også:

The Arab national movement in Palestine. Chapter 16, -i: The problem of the Middle East. By Tony Cliff (unpublished manuscript, 1946; online at the Marxists Internet Archive, June 2011)


 

3. maj 1936

Folkefronten i Frankrig vinder valget, og 376 pladser ud af parlamentets 618 pladser.

1936electionmay460.png

Se:

75 years ago: French elections point toward revolution (World Socialist Web Site, 25 April 2011)

Popular Front (France) (Wikipedia.org)

Video: The Popular Front party wins French legislative elections in France (CriticalPast.com, 40 sec., no sound)


 

4. juni 1936

Leon Blum danner første folkefrontsregering i Frankrig – og følges af store “forventningsstrejker”. Se 3. maj 1936 ovenfor om selve valget.

1936france1936_a.jpg

Et håb blev knust (Frankrig 1936). Af Martin Johansen (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr.19, maj 1986). ” … i Frankrig i 1936 kom der et fantastisk opsving i arbejdernes kampe, som gav et kort glimt af mulighederne for at vende situationen.”

”Man måste kunna avsluta en strejk”: 1936 i Frankrike. I: Krisen i den kommunistiska rörelsen. Del 1 (pdf). Av Fernando Claudín (Bokförlaget Röda Rummet och Förlaget Barrikaden, 1979, s.125-132; online på Marxistarkiv.se). Scroll nedad.

Assessing Léon Blum. By Mitchell Abidor (Jacobin: Reason in Revolt, 26 September 2016). “In French Popular Front leader Léon Blum we find both the grandeur and misery of interwar social democracy.”

75 years ago: French Stalinists smother strike wave (World Socialist Web Site; This Week in History, 4 July 2011)

June 1936: the French general strike and factory occupations, Part 85 in: Neil Faulkner: A Marxist History of the World (Counterfire, 22 July 2012). “In the mid-1930s French workers launched a wave of strikes and occupations. Neil Faulkner explains how the Stalinised Communist Party worked to contain this resistance.”

The Popular Front, a social and political tragedy: the case of France. By Dan La Botz (New Politics: A Journal of Socialist Thought, Vol.13, No.2, Whole No.50, Winter 2011, p.91-104): “The Popular Front strategy not only failed to stop fascism in France, but it also tended to disorient the working class, …”

1936: ‘The French revolution has begun’. By Sofie Buckland (Solidarity, 3/95, 22 June 2006). “The Popular Front [was] responsible for the demoralisation of the working class and the buffering of the bourgeois parties previously in decline …”

The will of the people: France’s red hot winter (Socialist Review, Issue 193, January 1996). “June 1936 remains an inspiration and a lesson. It shows how quickly a situation can develop in which workers after a long period of defensiveness can go onto the offensive …”

France: ‘Everything is possible‘: The June 1936 strike wave. By Shane Bentley (Green Left, November 17, 1993). “On May 3, the Popular Front won a massive electoral victory.”

When everything was possible. By Costas Lapavitsas (Socialist Review, Issue 88, June 1986, p.31-32). Review of Jacques Danos and Marcel Gibelin, June ’36: Class Struggle and the Popular Front in France (Bookmarks, 1986, 272 p.)

Too much, too little, too late: left Social Democracy in the French Popular Front. By Ian Birchall (International Socialism, Issue 13, Summer 1981, p.74–89). “We can learn some interesting lessons from the experience of the left in the French Socialist Party during the nine teen-thirties.”

Samtidig bladforside med Blum og Thorez
Samtidig bladforside med Blum og Thorez.

Historical texts:

Le Mouvement de Greve (Critical Past, June 1936, 2 min. 22 sec., sound French). “Closed shops during strike and crowd demonstrations on streets in France.”

“The movement still grows” – Headlines from L’Humanité, May/June 1936 (Marxists Internet Archive)

Why the French Popular Front failed. By Edgar Hardcastle (Socialist Standard, July 1939)

Workers Front and Popular Front. By Alfred Rosmer (New International, Vol.4, No.2, February 1938)

From People’s Front to French Front. By Maurice Spector (Socialist Alternative, Vol.2, No.9, October 1936)

Leon Trotsky: Whither France? (1934-1936) (New Park, London, 1974; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

Se også / See also:

Glossary of Terms: Popular Front (aka People’s Front) (Marxists Internet Archive)

The Front Populaire and the making of the French Communist Party (1920–1962). By Selim Nadi (International Socialist Review, Issue 104, Spring 2017, p.110-121)

Communist Party of France (Marxists Internet Archive). Links to articles of 1936-1939, and to general secretary Maurice Thorez Archive. Incl: From Thorez’s Autobiography (1960): The Popular Front

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

 

Foto: Fabriksbesættelser i Frankrig 1936
Foto: Fabriksbesættelser i Frankrig 1936

 

17. juni 1936

Britiske filminstruktør Ken Loach fødes i Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England.

 

Ken Loach, 2005
Ken Loach, 2005

Se:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Personlisten Ken Loach, med links til nogle af hans film.


 

18. juni 1936

Den russiske sociale forfatter Maksim Gorkij dør (født 28. marts 1868, se denne)


 

28. juni 1936

Anarkisten Alexander Berkman dør for egen hånd i Nice, Frankrig (født 21. november 1870 i Vilnius, nuværende Lithauen), se denne.


 

7. juli 1936

Den danske anarkistiske forfatter Jean Jacques Ipsen dør (født 6. januar 1857, se denne).


 

17. juli 1936

Kl. 2 om natten starter den højre-nationalistiske opstand, imod regeringen, der giver statsskuddet til den spanske revolution og borgerkrig (endeligt nederlag 1939).

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

10. august 1936

Sidste hefte af Arbeidernes Leksikon udkommer. Se under første hefte 11. marts 1931.


 

19. august 1936

Den spanske digter Frederico Garcia Lorca (født 5.6.1898 i Fuerte Vaqueros) myrdes af fascisterne under den spanske borgerkrig i Granada-provinsen.

Se: 1936Lorca.jpg

Folkelig poesi i køkkenet: I Federico Garcia Lorcas spor. Af Lars Grenaa (Kommunistisk Politik, nr.11, 1998). “I 1998 er det hundrede år siden at Federico Garcia Lorca blev født. Det har medfødt en bølge af festivaler og bogudgivelser.”

Individual, class and nation in Spain, 1936–1939 (Libcom.org, 25 Ocober 2016). “Juan McIver looks at the Spanish Civil War and the work of poet and playwright Federico Garcia Lorca.”

Documents confirm fascists murdered Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca. By Alejandro López (World Socialist Web Site, 30 April 2015). “The report, written in 1965 by the Regional Brigade of Social Investigation of the Police Headquarters of Granada, directed to the civil governor of the province, is the first official admission that fascist forces murdered Lorca …”

Federico Garcia Lorca: the poet at five in the afternoon. By Mike Gonzalez (Socialist Review, Issue 324, April 2008). “When fascist thugs murdered the 38 year old poet Federico Garcia Lorca in Granada in August 1936, they pinned a note to his body. It denounced the writer for his politics and for his homosexuality.”

Lorca: words of desire and words of defiance (Socialist Worker, Issue 2018, 16 September 2006). “Sinead Kennedy reflects on the life and work of the Spanish poet and playwright Federico Garcia Lorca.”

Litteratur:

Se også:

Federico Garcia Lorca’s body to be exhumed. By Paul Stuart (World Socialist Web Site, 11 October 2003) + Controversy surrounds opening of Garcia Lorca’s grave. By Vicky Short (28 August 2004)

The Spanish Civil War and Google Street View.  New project blends images from the siege of Madrid with modern-day photos of the capital (El Pais, 1. december 2014) Historiske fotos indsat i nutidens bybilleder, som fx foto # 4:
The famous Civil War slogan “They shall not pass” hanging from calle Toledo.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

22. august 1936

Den danske trotskist og internationale solidaritets-aktivist Vagn Rasmussen fødes i Viborg (dør 9. juli 2016, se denne)


19.-24. august 1936

Den første af de tre offentlige uhyrlige Moskvaprocesser (1936-38).

1936moskvaproces.jpg

Se:

Moskvaprocesserna (1964) (pdf). Av Pierre Broué (Marxistarkiv.se, 2007, 143 p.). “I denna bok gör den franske marxistiske historikern Pierre Broué en grundlig genomgång och analys av Moskvarättegångarna.”

Antiterrorismens algebra: Statsopbygning og fjendebillede under Moskvaprocesserne 1936-38 (pdf). Af Bertel Nygaard. I: Antiterrorismens idéhistorie: Stater og vold i 500 år. Red. Mikkel Thorup og Morten Brænder (Århus Universitetsforlag, 2007, p.149-157). “Som det vil fremgå i det følgende, var her reelt tale om en fiktiv fjende, opbygget gennem et netværk af løgne og fordrejninger fra de statslige myndigheders side.”

Moskva processerne, del 1. Af Rob Sewell (Revolution, 31. december 1999) + Del 2. “Da Stalin havde besejret Trotskijs venstreopposition, vendte han sig imod alle sine andre modstandere, deriblandt hans tidligere venner på højrefløjen …”

Eighty years since the first Moscow Trial. By Fred Williams (World Socialist Web Site, 1 September 2016). “The Moscow Trials, and the blood purges that followed, had a devastating impact, virtually annihilating the socialist elements in the working class and intelligentsia.”

The Moscow Trials: A lesson from history. By Jim Brookshaw (In Defence of Marxism, 22 October 2012). “Their aim was to liquidate the entire remaining Bolshevik old guard …”

Defending historical truth. By Andrea Peters (World Socialist Web Site, 9 September 2009). Review of Vadim Rogovin’s Stalin’s Terror of 1937-1938: Political Genocide in the USSR (Mehring Books, 2009). See also The Introduction by Vadim Z. Rogovin: 1937: Stalin’s Year of Terror (29 December 1998)

Remembering the Moscow Trials. By James Woudhuysen (Spiked, 16 April 2007). “Amid today’s craze for anniversaries, there’s one episode in history that nobody – especially on the left – wants to talk about.”

The Moscow Trials. By Hugh Dewar (Survey: A Journal of East and West Studies, No.41, April 1962, p.87-95; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “The circumstances of the time made many politically conscious people desire above all to think the best of the Soviet Government …”

The British Stalinists and the Moscow Trials. By Joseph Redman i.e. Brian Pearce] (Labour Review, Vol.3, No.2, March-April 1958; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “… the articles purpose is merely to recall how the leaders and spokesmen of the Stalinist organization in Britain reacted to the trials and what some of the effects of their reaction were in the British working-class movement …” Svensk udgave: De brittiska stalinisterna och Moskvarättegångarna (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se)

Behind the Moscow Trial. By Max Shachtman (New York, Pioneer Publishers, 1936, 142 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive). The book as pdf-file. “The execution of the 16 men on August 24, 1936 was the result of the biggest frame-up known in history!” Svensk udgave: Bakom Moskvarättegången (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, 11. september 2017)

The Red Book on the Moscow Trials (1936). Documents collected and edited by Leon Sedov (London, New Park, 1980, 120 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “The book was the major literay contribution to the revolutionary movement by Trotsky’s son, Leon Sedov.”

The witchcraft trial in Moscow. By Friedrich Adler (London, Labour Publications, 1936, 35 p.; online at Marxists Internet Archive). Friedrich Adler (1879-1960) was a long-standing Austrian Social Democrat.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Bolsjevikkernes centralkomite med angivelse af den enkelte skæbne. Klik for større billede.
Bolsjevikkernes centralkomite med angivelse af den enkelte skæbne. Klik for større billede.

 

25. august 1936

Dagen for mordene på de gamle bolsjevikker, dødsdømt i den første Moskva-proces (se 19. august 1936 ovenfor).
1936kamogsin.jpg
Mest fremtrædende var – (hhv. til venstre og højre på foto) Grigorij Zinovjev (født 23. september 1883, se denne) og Lev Kamenev.


 

21. september 1936

Den marxistiske sociolog Nicos Poulantzas fødes i Athen, Grækenland. (Dør i Paris 3. oktober 1979, se denne)


 

26. september 1936

Den sydafrikanske antiapartheid- og ANC-leder Winnie Mandela fødes i Bizana (Eastern Cape province). (Dør i Johannesburg, 2. april 2018, se denne)


 

4. oktober 1936

Søndag den 4. oktober arrangerede det britiske fascistparti, British Union of Fascists (BUF), under ledelse af Oswald Mosley, ca. 5.000 “sortskjorte”-march i London, blev mødt af 100.000 antifascister, koncentreret på Cable Street i Øst-London.

1936alloutagainstfascism200px-CableStreet.jpg

Se:

The Battle of Cable Street: 80 years on. By Steve Silver and David Emmett (Hope not hate, 4 October 2016). “This multimedia website looks at the history of 4 October 1936 and its subsequent commemoration.”

Battle of Cable Street, 1936, photo gallery (Libcom.org)

Battle of Cable Street. Site with History & Gallery (online at Internet Archive WayBackMachine)

Articles:

Cable Street and its aftermath – how the Blackshirts tried and failed to build in London’s East End (RS21: Revolutionary Socialism in the 21st Century, October 7, 2016). “Gary McNally argues against a recent trend among historians to dismiss the antifascist demonstration as counterproductive.”

The day East Enders built barricades (Socialist Review, Issue 417, October 2016). “Simon Shaw looks at the heroic actions of that day, their wider context and the traditions of organisation that made victory possible.”

‘We still haven’t learned the lesson of the Battle of Cable Street 80 years on’ (Mirror, 1 October 2016). “Willie Myers, then 14, found himself in a sea of protesters as 7,000 uniformed fascists tried to force their way through London’s East End.”

Battle of Cable Street: the fight against fascism (Counterfire, September 26, 2016). “As the 80th anniversary of the Battle of Cable Street approaches, Chris Bambery looks at the events that took place in 1936 Britain and the lessons we can take from them.”

1936: The Battle of Cable Street. By Sam Ashton (In Defence of Marxism, 4 October 2011). “… a momentous event in which the working people of London united to deliver a decisive blow against the menace British fascism.”

Cable Street – they did not pass. By Patrick Ward (Socialist Worker, Issue 2271, 1 October 2011). “The Battle of Cable Street was a key moment in anti-fascist history when mass working class resistance stopped the Blackshirts.”

Fighting Fascism: From Cable Street 1936 to Tower Hamlets 2011 (Socialist Review, Issue 362, October 2011). “Martin Smith looks at the lessons for the fight against the EDL, while Dave Renton explores the history of Cable Street, where Oswald Mosley’s fascists were stopped 75 years ago.”

Cable Street 1936: when workers stopped the fascists. By Ruah Carlyle (Solidarity, Issue 217, 21 September 2011). “The Jewish community had its own ex-servicemen’s anti-fascist militia …”

‘The Battle of Cable Street’: 75 years on. By David Rosenberg (History Workshop Online, January 8, 2011). “… an iconic moment in the struggle against Sir Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists.”

Day the East End said ‘No pasaran’ to Blackshirts. By Audrey Gillan (The Guardian, 30 September 2006). “Their victory over racism and anti-Semitism on Sunday October 4 1936 became known as the Battle of Cable Street and encapsulated the British fight against a fascism that was stomping across Europe.”

1936: Fascists and police routed – the Battle of Cable Street (Libcom.org, Sep 12, 2005). “An eye witness account by Reg Weston, Higham resident and life-time NUJ member.”

The Battle of Cable Street: myths and realities. By Richard Price and Martin Sullivan (Workers News, March-April 1994; online at What Next!). “With the same area once again targeted by fascists, the Battle of Cable Street contains valuable lessons for today.”

The Battle of Cable St, 1936 (Libcom.org, Jul 21, 2007). Chapter 12 of Joe Jacobs, Out of the Ghetto (London, Janet Simon, 1978)

Fighting the beast – Fascism: the lessons of Cable Street. By Colin Sparks (International Socialism, No.94, January 1977). “Fourty years ago the British Union of Fascists were pushing hard around the ‘enemy’ of the day – the Jews. By and large, the labour movement won that battle. It is worth looking at some of the lessons learnt then.”

Videos:

1936 feature (Reuters) (YouTube, 2:08 min)

Max Levitas “the Battle of Cable Street” (YouTube, 9:35 min.). 90 year old eyewitness to the Battle of Cable Street speaks to a group during a workshop.

The Battle of Cable Street 2010 (YouTube, 1:21 min.)

Battle of Cable Street (kortfilm m. animation). By Yoav Segal, 2006 (YouTube, 7:57 min.)

See also:

They shall not pass/No Pasaran (Wikipedia.org)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Plaque, Dock Street, near Cable Street junction, London, 17 Sept 2005
Plaque, Dock Street, near Cable Street junction, London, 17 Sept 2005

 

22. oktober 1936

Medstifter og formand for Black Panther Party, Bobby Seale fødes i Dallas, Texas, USA.

Bobby Seale og Huey P. Newton ved stiftelsen af Det Sorte Panterparti i Oakland, Calif., , oktober 1966.
Bobby Seale og Huey P. Newton ved stiftelsen af Det Sorte Panterparti i Oakland, Calif., , oktober 1966.

Biografisk:

Litteratur (på dansk):

  • Bobby Seale: Tiden er inde: det sorte panterpartis historie (Gyldendal, 1971, 375 s.). English edition online: Seize the time: The story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton (Libcom.org)
  • Bobby Seale: Den ensomme vrede: selvbiografi (Rhodos, 1978, 329 s.).
  • Jørgen Dragsdahl: Det Sorte Panterparti: Amerikas revolutionære avantgarde (Røde Hane, 1970, 202 s.)
  • Angela Davis: En selvbiografi. Af Angela Davis (Gyldendal, 1975, 361 s.)
  • Hvis de kommer om morgenen: modstandsrøster. Af Angela Davis, Ruchell Magee, Soledad-brødrene (Tiden, 1972, 176 s.)
  • Huey P. Newton: Forsvar for selvforsvar (Politisk Revy, 1971, 80 s.)
  • Huey P. Newton: Lad os holde ideen om det revolutionære verdenssamfund og Huey P. Newtons uovervindelige tanker højt (Særtryk af Politisk Arbejde, u.å., 16 s.). Huey P. Newton’s budskab på Boston College 18. november 1970.
  • Eldridge Cleaver: Sjæl på is: åbne breve til USA (Rhodos, 1969, 185 s.)
  • Bobby Seale: Den ensomme vrede: selvbiografi (Rhodos, 1978, 329 s.).

Se også:

English edition online: Seize the time: The story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton (Libcom.org)

Linkbox: Black Power: Historie og personer for flere links om bevægelsen, partiet, personer m.m.

http://thegiant.org/wiki/index.php/File:Sealestamp.jpg
http://thegiant.org/wiki/index.php/File:Sealestamp.jpg

 

23. november 1936

Nobels fredspris for 1935 tildeles den internerede tyske redaktør Carl von Ossietzky. 1936carlvon.jpg

Se:

Ossietzky-sagen (Leksikon.org).

Ossietzky, Carl von (Fredsakademiet: Freds- og sikkerhedspolitisk Leksikon)

Carl von Ossietzky (Wikipedia.org). Links til kortere danske og længere tyske artikler.

Se også:

Freundeskreis Carl von Ossietzky (Fredsakademiet: Freds- og sikkerhedspolitisk Leksikon)
m. links, inkl. bogen: Kurt Singer: Carl von Ossietzky : Fredshelten i Koncentrationslejren (Frem-Forlag. København. 1936, 45 sider; På omslaget: Fredens Forkæmper som frivilligt blev Martyr i Koncentrationslejren og er indstillet til Nobels Freds-Pris).


 

30. december 1936

Bilarbejderne i Flint, Michigan, starter besættelser, der fører til 135.000 i strejke mod General Motors.
“The most important strike in American labor history.”

Se:

Flint Sit-Down Strike (Wikipedia.org)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

1936flint.jpg


 

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