Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1921.
Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.
Arbejderbladet. Dagblad. Fra 3. februar 1922 stod DKP som udgiver.
Baalet. Tidsskrift for Liv og Kunst. Udgivet af ”Litterær Arbejder-klub”.
Daggry. Fortsættelse af Arbejdertidende, se 1919.
Samarbejdet. Organ for den uafhængige fagbevægelse. Ugeblad. Udg. af De frie fagforeninger. [syndikalister uden for parti/DKP-samarbejdet]
Den russiske anarkist Peter (Pjotr) Kropotkin dør i Dmitrov, 65 km nord for Moskva (født 21.12.1842 i Moskva).
- Kropotkin, Pjotr (Leksikon.org)
- Kropotkin, Pjotr (Foreningen Sorte Fane). Oversigt over tekster på dansk + links.
- Peter Kropotkin (Anarchy Archives: An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism)
- Peter Kropotkin (Marxists Internet Archive; Reference Archive)
Illustration: Rukavishnikov Aleksandr: Monument to Prince Peter Alekseyevich Kropotkin (2004, Dmitrov, Moscow)
Kronstadt-oprøret startes af soldater og matroser som reaktion på Bolsjevikpartiets politik over for landbruget og på situationen i landet. Opstanden slås ned 17.3.
- Linkbox: Kronstadt 1921
Illustration: Soldater loyale mod sovjetregeringen og bolsjevikkerne under angreb på Kronstadt over isen.
SUKP’s (Bolsjevikkerne) 10. kongres vedtager ny økonomisk politik (NEP) og fagforeningsresolution.
- NEP (Leksikon.org)
- Resolutions of Soviet Party Congresses (Marxists Internet Archive; Soviet History Archive). Scroll ned.
Perestroika’s “Revival of Nep: A Contemporary Chronicle, 1985-1990″ (pdf). By Lars T. Lih (The NEP Era: Soviet Russia 1921-1928, Vol.3, 2009, p.1-35). “The NEP theme proved to be an extremely rich guide to the debates swirling in the Soviet media that were such a hallmark of the Gorbachev years.”
The crisis of 1921: The beginnings of the N.E.P. and the rise of the apparatus. Chapter 7, – i: Pierre Broué: The history of the Bolshevik Party (CP) of the USSR: The political struggles in Russia (1921–1929) (1971, online at Marxists Internet Archive)
The political struggles in Russia, 1921-1929. By Pierre Broué (Marxists Internet Archive). Chapter 7-11 of The history of the Bolshevik Party (CP) of the U.S.S.R. (1971; online at Marxists Internet Archive)
- Parti, stat og fagforeninger – en antologi. Redigeret af Niels Brunse (Rhodos, 1976, 343 sider) (Revolutionshistoriske dokumenter, bind 3)
- The Red Jacobins: Thermidor and the Russian Revolution in 1921 (pdf). By Mark Hoskisson (Permanent Revolution, Issue 17, Summer 2010)
Starter “Marts-aktionen”, da Tysklands kommunistparti (KPD) over for sikkerhedspolitiets overgreb mod minearbejderne i Centraltyskland opfordrer til bevæbnet opstand og senere til generalstrejke, imod flertallet af arbejderne, i tro på, at den revolutionære situation kan skabes gennem offensiv af de revolutionære selv.
“Offensiv-teorien” kostede KPD, der lige var blevet et masseparti med ca. 500.000 medlemmer, omkrig halvdelen af medlemmerne.
March Action (Wkipedia.org)
Linkboxen Den tyske revolution 1918-23 (Socialistisk Bibliotek), med afsnit om “Marts-aktionen”.
Tyendeloven (“Slaveloven”) med husbonds revselsesret og tyendes pligt til den forhadte skudsmålsbog, hvis man ville arbejde udensogns, afløses af Medhjælperloven.
Loven blev indført 5. september 1832, se denne.
Første nummer af Arbejderbladet, dagblad for Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti.
- 20. maj 1921 – Arbejderbladet udkommer første gang (Arbejderen, 20.5.2003)
- Tidslinjen 5. maj 1945 om DKPs dagblad Land og Folk.
Kommunistisk Internationales (Komintern) 3. kongres, vedtager enhedsfrontlinjen. Kongressens hovedbudskab var fra “kampen om magten” til “kampen om masserne” gennem enhedsfronspolitik.
- Komintern : Første periode (1919-1922) (Leksikon.org)
- Tema: Enhedsfront (Socialistisk Arbejderavis)
- V.I. Lenin: Tale til forsvar af Kommunistisk Internationales taktik (1. juli 1921) (Marxisme online)
- Leon Trotskij: Om enhetsfronten (Marxisme Online)
- The Communist International 1919–1943 (Marxists Internet Archive). Scroll ned.
- Speeches at the Third Congress of the Communist International, Moscow, June 22-July 12, 1921 (Marxists Internet Archive; The Communist International)
New Comintern Volume presents debates on United Front, Fascism. By John Riddell (Marxist Essays and Commentary, June 28, 2018) + The Comintern debates the United Front: Excerpts from the original leadership debate, 1922 (Marxist Essays and Commentary, May 5, 2019). With introduction by Mike Taber.
Newly published speeches by Lenin, Trotsky, and Béla Kun (Marxist Essays and Commentary, February 6, 2018). “The three speeches posted here constituted a turning point in efforts at the Communist International’s Third Congress, held in 1921, to reorient the movement away from adventurist leftism and toward the mass movements of working people.”
A workers’ International at a turning point. By John Riddell (International Socialist Review, Issue 99, Winter 2015-16). “Introducing excerpts from the Communist International’s Third Congress.”
Navigating unchartered waters (Weekly Worker, Issue 1085, 3 December 2015). “Ian Birchall examines the deliberations of Comintern’s Third Congress in the aftermath of the 1921 March action.”
Ian Birchall on John Riddell’s ‘To the masses’: Essential resource on communism’s early years (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, April 12, 2015). Review of To The Masses: Proceedings of the Third Congress of the Communist International, 1921. Edited by John Riddell (Brill, 2015/Haymarket Books, 2016, 1299 p.). See more reviews:
- Comintern Congress revisited. By Ted McTaggart (Against the Current, Issue 180, January-February 2016). Reviews:
- ‘To the Masses’ is ‘a triumphant climax’ to an ‘epic scholarly venture’. By Lars Lih (Marxist Essay and Commentary, March 14, 2016).
- Majorities, minorities, and revolutionary tactics. By Jennifer Roesch (International Socialist Review, Issue 101, Summer 2016). Review
- Debating the world revolution. By John Rose (International Socialism, Issue 153, Winter 2017)
- To the Masses By Chris Bambery (Counterfire, February 2, 2017)
- ‘Heated debate and tumult’: The Comintern’s 1921 congress. By Umair Muhammad (Science and Society, Vol.81, No.3, July 2017, p.452-54; online at Marxist Essays and Commentary, December 26, 2017)
Profile of a Communist women’s movement. Introduced by Mike Taber and John Riddell (International Socialist Review, Issue 101, Summer 2016). “Excerpts from the Communist International’s Third Congress [by Clara Zetkin and Alexandra Kollontai].” See also Daria Dyakonova: The dawn of our liberation: The early days of the International Communist Women’s Movement (Marxists Essays and Commentary, September 13, 2018).
Lenin the unifier: The Comintern compromise of 1921. By John Riddell (Marxist Essays and Commentary, May 5, 2015). “The record speaks powerfully regarding Lenin’s role as a defender of principled revolutionary unity.”
German workers and the birth of the united front. By John Riddell (International Socialist Review, Issue 79, September-October 2011). “The policy of the united front is among the most effective tools for working-class action inherited from the era of V. I. Lenin and the Russian Revolution. As originally formulated by the Executive Committee of the Communist International (Comintern) in December 1921 …”
The origins of the united front policy. By John Riddell (International Socialism, Issue 130, Spring 2011, p.130-140). “The policy of the united front is among the most effective tools for working class action inherited from the era of VI Lenin and the Russian revolution.”
The united front: ground for common work (Socialist Worker, Issue 2076, 10 November 2007). “John Riddell, the pre-eminent historian of the International, looks at how revolutionaries can make alliances with trade unions and reformist organisations.”
The Ebb. Chapter 3 in Duncan Hallas: The Comintern (Bookmarks, 1985, p.54-82; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “What should a revolutionary party do in a non-revolutionary situation? In 1919 this was not an issue. By 1921 it was central.”
Meetings in the Kremlin in Moscow 1921 (Libcom, January 4, 2006). “An interview conducted in 1964 with former KAPD (Communist Workers Party of Germany) member Bernhard Reichenbach about the 1921 Communist International Congress in Moscow, after which the KAPD withdrew from the Comintern.”
La Internacional Comunista (tercer congreso), 1921 (YouTube.com, 3:26 min.)
Lenin’s Comintern revisited: Index (John Riddell: Marxist Essays and Commentaries, December 31, 2017). Articles by John Riddell, 2007-2018.
Tegneren og grafikeren Ib Spang Olsen fødes på Østerbro. (dør 15. januar 2012, se denne).
- Ib Spang Olsen (Denstoredanske.dk)
- Ib Spang Olsen (Socialister på Assistens Kirkegård; Andre bemærkelsesværdige)
12-13 personer mødes i Shanghai, i den tidligere franske handelsmissions bygning, og afholder Kinas Kommunistiske Partis første kongres. Medlemstallet anslås til under 60 over hele Kina.
- History of the Communist Party of China (Wikipedia.org)
Young Pioneers: May Fourth Manifesto (New Left Review, Issue 116/117, March-June 2019). “A resounding call for labour rights and democracy on the centenary of the youth uprising of May 1919, swiftly removed from the internet.”
One hundred years since the May 4 movement in China. Part 1-2. By Peter Symonds (World Socialist Web Site, 4-6 May 2019). “The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was founded in July 1921, little more than two years after the first Beijing protest. Many of the founding members were youth who had been radicalised by the May 4 movement.”
Ninety years since the founding of the Chinese Communist Party. By John Chan (World Socialist Web Site, 5 July 2011). “The founding congress was attended by just 13 men, representing a membership of less than 60, and by Maring (Hendrick Sneevliet) on behalf of the Communist International. Chen Duxiu, the dean of the Peking University and editor of New Youth, was elected as leader.”
90 years of the Chinese Communist Party, Part One. By Dan Morley (In Defence of Marxism, 1 July 2011) + Part 2 (22 July 2011) + Part 3 (6 September 2011) + Part 4 (20 September 2011) + Part 5 (26 September 2011).
Revolutionärerna i Kinas städer (pdf). Av Gregor Benton (Marxistarkiv.se).
Engelsk original: China’s Urban Revolutionaries: Explorations in the History of Chinese Trotskyism, 1921-1952 (Humanities Press, 1996, p.1-123). Se også Gregor Benton: Explorations in the history of Chinese Trotskyism (pdf) (IIRE Working Papers, Issue 26, 1992, 50 p.) + Gregor Benton (ed.): Prophets Unarmed: Chinese Trotskyists in Revolution, War, Jail, and the Return from Limbo (Brill, 2015/Haymarket Books, 2017, 1269 p.)
The awakening of the Chinese workers’ movement (Revolutionary History, Vol.2, No.4, Spring 1990, p.5-6)
The Origins of Chinese Communism. By Al Richardson (Revolutionary History, Vol.2, No.4, Spring 1990, p.48-49). Review of Arif Dirlik’s book (Oxford University Press, 1989)
Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949. By Lucien Bianco (Stanford University Press, 1971). Extracts from chapter 1-3 at Google Books
- May Fourth Movement (Wikipedia.org)
- Chen Duxiu (Wikipedia.org)
- China / Chinese Trotskyism (Marxists Internet Archive)
- Linkboxen Folkerepublikken Kina, 1949-
Den britiske marxistiske kulturkritiker og forfatter Raymond Williams fødes i Wales (dør 26. januar 1988 in Saffron Walden, nær Cambridge).
- Raymond Williams (Denstoredanske.dk). Kort leksikal.
- Raymond Williams (Wikipedia.org). Incl. works.
- The Raymond Williams Society (site). See here: “Reflections on Raymond Williams” , Part 1 by Patrick Parrinder + Part 2 by Terry Eagleton.
Raymond Williams: Socialism, culture, revolution (Verso, Blog, 24 August 2018). “Ben Harker maps Williams’s developing positions on the relationship between culture, consciousness, class power, and socialist strategy.”
Raymond Williams: thirty years on. By Matthew (Solidarity & Workers’ Liberty, 31 January 2018). “In the 60s and 70s Williams’ star shone brightly in the intellectual firmament of the left. It has faded somewhat since. Unjustly so in my opinion …”
Reflections on Raymond Williams (Verso, Blog, 29 January 2018). “Terry Eagleton, Elinor Taylor, Jacob Soule, Patrick Parrinder, and others on the life and work of Raymond Williams.”
Culture and Society, then and now. By Francis Mulhern (New Left Review, Issue 55, January-February 2009). “The idea of culture in Raymond Williams’s classic work, and discrepant readings of it, fifty years on. Gestation amid CP debates on the English tradition, hidden affinities with the Frankfurt School, and counterposition to the verities of today’s liberal multiculturalism.”
Raymond Williams. By Jonny Jones (Socialist Review, Issue 332, January 2009). Review of Dai Smith, Raymond Williams: A Warrior’s Tale (Parthian Books, 2008). “Smith’s biography is an interesting and often insightful compendium of Williams’ fiction and unpublished papers.”
Raymond Williams, and why culture matters. By Terry Eagleton (Against the Current, No.137, November/December 2008). “This year sees the 20th anniversary of the death of Raymond Williams, one of the towering socialist thinkers of the 20th century.”
Upwards and onwards. By Stefan Collini (London Review of Books, Vol.30, No.15, 31 July 2008). Review of Dai Smith, Raymond Williams: A Warrior’s Tale (Parthian, 2008, 514 p.). “One immediate disappointment is that Smith’s is not the full biography so eagerly anticipated: he covers only the first forty years of Williams’s life, stopping in 1961 … Nonetheless, what Smith has done he has done well.”
The life of Raymond Williams (New Statesman, 21 February 2008). “In this article, published at the time of his death, Stuart Hall, much influenced by Williams in his own work, assesses his importance.”
Raymond Williams and the moral project of the new left. By Terry Murphy (Against the Current, No.71, November/December 1997). Review of Dennis L. Dworkin and Leslie C. Roman (eds.), Views Beyond the Border Country: Raymond Williams and Cultural Politics (Routledge, 1993)
Romanticism in the English social sciences: E.P. Thompson & Raymond Williams. By Michael Löwy and Robert Sayre (Against the Current, No.61, March-April 1996). “Williams undeniably evolved over the course of his career, but he never repudiated the Romantic underpinnings of his thought.”
Raymond Williams: revitalising the left? By Chris Nineham (International Socialism, Issue 71, June 1996, p.117-129). Review of F. Inglis, Raymond Williams (Routledge, 1995). “Raymond Williams deserves a better memorial than this. Author Fred Inglis claims to be a devout fan but his respectful tone only half hides his sneers.”
Raymond Williams: centrist tragedy? By Ian Birchall (International Socialism, Issue 39, Summer 1988, p.139-161; online at Grim and Dim). “It is a commonplace to note the preoccupation with ‘borders’ in Williams’ work. Most of his work was produced on the uneasy borderline between reform and revolution. And his greatest strength was his ability to constantly cross the frontier between theory and practice.”
The life of Raymond Williams. By Stuart Hall (The New Statesman, 5 February 1988). “In this article, published at the time of his death, Stuart Hall, much influenced by Williams in his own work, assesses his importance.”
Raymond Williams, culture and Marxism. By Colin Sparks (International Socialism, Issue 9, Summer 1980, p.131–144). “In the case of Williams, I want to argue, some of the questions he has asked have been ones upon which our own answers have been very shaky.”
Raymond Williams comments on the keyword ‘nature’ at the ‘Linguistics of Writing’ conference, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK, in 1986.
Raymond Williams and Keywords. By Stephen Heath (Keywords Project; University of Pittsburg). Incl. video: Raymond Williams draws attention to the complexity of a keyword (‘nature’) … (4:58 min.).
- De loyale. Af Raymond Williams (Klim, 1986, 355 sider)
- Orwell. Af Raymond Williams (Tiderne Skifter, 1984, 116 sider)
- Massemedierne. Af Raymond Williams (Fremad, 1963, 197 sider)
Første nummer af norske tidsskrift Mot Dag udkom (sidste nr. 20.6.1936). Udkom ikke i 1929 og 1930, så der udkom i alt 14 årgange.
Fra april 1933 udgav gruppen Arbeidernes Leksikon (1931-1936). Ved opløsning i 1936 gik de fleste over i Tiden Norsk Forlag.
- Tidsskriftet Mot Dag (1921-36) (Marxistisk Internet Archive; Norsk). Tekster fra tidsskriftet.
- Mot Dag (Leksikon.org)
- Mot Dag (Wikipedia.no)
The Mot Dag Association: ‘Leftist academics preaching radical ideas’. By Geir Bentzen (Socialist History, Issue 21, 2002; online at Internet Archive WayBackMachine).
- Tidslinjen 11. marts 1931 om udgivelsen af Arbeidernes Leksikon.
Illustration: Mot Dag-gruppen 1933