27. januar 1945 blev Auschwitz-lejren befriet. Datoen blev i 2004 Danmarks 'minde- og mærkedag for ofre for Holocaust og andre folkedrab'. Den tyske KZ-lejr, Auschwitz I (hovedlejren), Polen, foto 27. november 2005 af Tulio Bertorini (tbertor1). (CC BY-SA 2.0).
27. januar 1945 blev Auschwitz-lejren befriet. Datoen blev i 2004 Danmarks 'minde- og mærkedag for ofre for Holocaust og andre folkedrab'. Den tyske KZ-lejr, Auschwitz I (hovedlejren), Polen, foto 27. november 2005 af Tulio Bertorini (tbertor1). (CC BY-SA 2.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Socialistisk Biblioteks Tidslinje med links til begivenheder og personer i 1945.


Se også Index over personer, organisationer/partier og værker (som bøger, malerier, mm.), steder, begivenheder, mv., der er omtalt på hele Tidslinjen, titler og indhold på emnelisterne osv.

 

1945-

Reaching for Revolution. By Alan Wald (Against the Current, Issue 179, November-December 2015). Review of Howard Brick and Christopher Phelps, Radicals in America:
The U.S. Left Since the Second World War (Cambridge University Press, 2015, 355 p.). “Radicals in America is a learned volume, unsurpassed for a supreme command of the facts, yet is also a political breakthrough in the battle over memory of the postwar Left.” Se also review by Wade A. Bell Jr. (Socialism and Democracy, Vol.30, No.3, November, 2016) + Andrew Hartman: Beyond the whack-a-mole Left (Jacobin, 10 June 2016).


 

27. januar 1945

Koncentrationslejrkomplekset Auschwitz-Birkenau bliver befriet af sovjetiske tropper.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten: Auschwitz og holocaust


 

4. februar 1945

4.-12. februar holdtes Jalta-konferencen mellem Churchill, Roosevelt og Stalin, der delte Europa efter krigen.

Yalta conference Churchill Stalin Roosevelt 1945 (The National Archives ref: INF 14/447). This Kodak Kodachrome photograph was not colorized. Public Domain.
Yalta conference Churchill Stalin Roosevelt 1945 (The National Archives ref: INF 14/447). This Kodak Kodachrome photograph was not colorized. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

Jalta 1945—how they carved up the globe (Socialist Worker, Issue 2690, 3 February 2020). “Seventy five years ago, a cabal of world leaders crafted a secret plan to divide up Europe. Socialist Worker looks at how workers’ resistance forced their hand.”

Yalta 1945: when Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill shared out the spoils of World War Two. By Hal Draper (Workers’ Liberty, 19 July, 2013; originally in Labor Action, April 4, 1955). Longer article with7 chapters.


 

6. februar 1945

Den jamaicansk sanger, sangskriver og guitarist Bob Marley fødes i Nine Miles, St. Ann, Jamaica. (Dør 11. maj 1981 i Miami, Florida, U.S.).

“So if you are the big tree/
We are the small axe/
Ready to cut you down (well sharp)/
To cut you down”
(“Small Axe”, from the Wailers 1973 “Burnin” album).
(Kilde: All Things Reconsidered. Unity: Bob Marley’s Legacy and the Global Uprising, by Alexander Billet. In: PopMatters, 2 May 2011).

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Linkboxen: “Bob Marley: “Yesterday”


 

13. februar 1945

Britiske terrorbombardement af den tyske by Dresden indledes.

Se:

Dresden 1945. Af Kresten Søe (Historie-online.dk, den 4. marts 2020). Anmeldelse af Sinclair McKay: Dresden 1945 – Ilden og mørket (Lindhardt & Ringhof, 2020, 464 s.). “… en både rystende og læseværdig bog, som sætter et væsentligt historisk tema til diskussion og udgør den første danske boglige fremstilling om emnet.”

How many died in the bombing of Dresden? By Frederick Taylor (Spiegel Online, 10/02/2008). “Now, a commission of historians has said the real total could be much lower than previously thought. But the debate likely won’t go away.”

Erklärung der Dresdner Historikerkommission (pdf) – zur Ermittlung der Opferzahlen der Luftangriffe auf die Stadt Dresden am 13./14. Februar 1945 (Landeshauptstadt Dresden, 1. Oktober 2008, 8 s.)

The bombing of Dresden. By Jon Lamb (Green Left Weekly, Issue 614, February 9, 2005). “The fire bombing was motivated by one primary goal: as a warning to Russia and the fast advancing Red Army of the armed might of the US and British imperialist war machine.”

Dresden: Don’t apologise – understand. By James Woudhuysen (Spiked, 8 February 2005). “The debate surrounding the sixtieth anniversary of the firestorming of Dresden shows how sober analysis of history is being distorted by angst about the world today.”

The barbarity behind the bombing. By Michael Bradley (Socialist Review, Issue 283, March 2004). Review of Frederick Taylor, Dresden (Bloomsbury, 2004, 608 p.). “The real questions for Taylor are, why was Dresden attacked on such a large scale with the end of the war in sight? And how many really died in the flames?”

Human sacrifice. By Margot Hill (Socialist Review, Issue 183, February, 1995, p.20-21). “… few incidents were more shameful than the bombing of the German city of Dresden”.

Se også:

Firestorms (Spartacus Educational)


 

16. februar 1945

Den danske kommunist Otto Melchior dør af tyfus under dødsmarch bort fra KZ-lejren Stutthof (født 10. juni 1904, se denne)


 

22. april 1945

Grafikkeren og billedhuggeren Käthe Kollwitz dør i Moritzburg, ved Dresden. (Født i Kalingrad, dengang Königsberg, Østpreussen, 8. juli 1867, se denne).


 

27. april 1945

Den italienske fascistdiktator Mussolini ender ophængt i benene på banegården i Milano, henrettet af partisaner.

The dead body of Benito Mussolini next to his mistress Claretta Petacci and those of other executed fascists, on display in Milan on 29 April 1945, in Piazzale Loreto, the same place that the fascists had displayed the bodies of fifteen Milanese civilians a year earlier after executing them in retaliation for resistance activity. The bodies, from left to right, are: Nicola Bombacci, Benito Mussolini, Claretta Petacci, Alessandro Pavolini, Achille Starace. The photograph is by Vincenzo Carrese. Public Domain.
The dead body of Benito Mussolini next to his mistress Claretta Petacci and those of other executed fascists, on display in Milan on 29 April 1945, in Piazzale Loreto, the same place that the fascists had displayed the bodies of fifteen Milanese civilians a year earlier after executing them in retaliation for resistance activity. The bodies, from left to right, are: Nicola Bombacci, Benito Mussolini, Claretta Petacci, Alessandro Pavolini, Achille Starace. The photograph is by Vincenzo Carrese. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

The memory of the defeated. By David Broder (Jacobin, April 28, 2018). “Today marks the anniversary of Benito Mussolini’s execution. But the legacy of his regime continues to linger in Italian politics.”

How the Italian Communists fought the rise of Fascism. By David Broder (Jacobin, January 21, 2021). “Founded 100 years ago today, the Italian Communist Party immediately faced a violent wave of repression, killing hundreds of militants. As policemen, business elites, and even liberal politicians swung behind Benito Mussolini, no party resisted the Fascist threat more than the Communists.”

A Civil War: A History of the Italian Resistance. By David Shonfield (Counterfire, 14 February 2014). Reveiw of Claudio Pavone’s book (Verso, 2013, 744 p.): “The greatest merit of Claudio Pavone’s monumental work about the resistance and the downfall of fascism is that it rescued the reality of the civil war as well as the words from the fascists.”

Resisting revisionism. By Matthew Cookson (International Socialism, Spring 2010, p.214-15). Review of Tom Behan, The Italian Resistance: Fascists, Guerrillas and the Allies (Pluto Press, 2009, 320 p.). “Tom Behan’s fine new book … sides unashamedly with the people who bravely resisted Benito Mussolini’s fascist dictatorship … Behan uses first-hand interviews and the written accounts by partisans to illuminate the history.”

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 19. oktober 1922, om den italienske fascisme.


3. maj 1945

I Winnipeg, Canada fødes den senere marxistiske økonom og medredaktør 1985-2021 af årbogen Socialist Register, Leo Panitch. (Dør i Toronto, 9. december 2020, se denne dato for links).


 

4. maj 1945

4. maj om aftenen kl. 20.36 fra BBC i London oplæses “Befrielsesbudskabet”, meddelelsen om tyske troppers overgivelse i bl.a. Danmark. Befrielsesaften med lys i vinduerne.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Emnelisten: Besættelsen 1940-1945, især afsnittet: Begivenheder 1940-45. Emneliste med artikler om Besættelselsestiden’s vigtigste begivenheder og datoer, 9. april 1940 – 5. maj 1945, og lidt om eftertiden.

Se også:

4. maj-initiativet, Vesterbro (site)


 

5. maj 1945

Det illegale månedsblad Land og Folk udkommer som Folkets Dagblad (fra 10. maj som Land og Folk), organ for Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, med et oplag i det første år på ca. 50.000 ekspl., redaktør til 1955, Børge Houmann (født 26.3.1902).
Dagbladets sidste nummer 28. december 1990 (se også denne dato).

Det illegale 'Land og Folk'.  
Det illegale ‘Land og Folk’.

Se:

Kampen for blad og parti: en analyse af Land og Folks betydning for DKP i 1980erne (pdf). Af Lars Hostrup Hansen (Speciale ved Historiestudiet, Aalborg Universitet, september 2008, 89 sider)

Litteratur:

Partihuset i Dronningens Tværgade i København under den 17. partikongres i 1952. Billedteksten i Land og Folk lød: ”Under hele kongressen har Land og Folks hus været festligt smykket med faner og flag med en stor transparent med parolen: Fred – Frihed – Socialisme.Arbejdermuseet og ABA).

Træk af DKPs presse gennem 60 år. “Fremstillet af en gruppe … aktive skrivende og tekniske medarbejdere” (1980, XI sider + 30 bl. med forsidekopier med dansk/tysk/engelsk og russisk tekst, eget tryk, stort format). Artikel af Alfred Jensen med bogens titel (11 sider)

Se også:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Land & Folks sidste nummer, 28. december 1990.

5. maj 1945

Det illegale blad Information stiftes som dagbladet Information

Se:

Dagbladet Information (Wikipedia.dk)

 

 


 

1945maj.bmp

7. maj 1945

Tyskland kapitulerer betingelsesløst kl. 2.41.

Se:

Nazi-rigets sidste dage. Af Alfred Lang (Modkraft.dk/Kontradoxa, 23. marts 2005). Se ajourført udgave: For 70 år siden – nazirigets undergang (Autonom Infoservice, 2. maj 2015). Med tillæg: ‘Hvem var hvem i nazisternes hierarki?’

German Instrument of Surrender (Wikipedia.org)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 20. november 1945, om krigsforbryderdomstolen i Nürnberg.


7. maj 1945

Rigspolitichefens Efterretningsafdeling (REA) oprettes (afløser SIPO fra 1939). I 1951 reorganiseres de danske efterretningstjenester: den militære efterretningstjeneste omdøbes til Forsvarets Efterretningsektion (FE), og REA tager navneændring til Politiets Efterretningstjeneste (PET).

Se:

Politiets Efterretningstjeneste (PET). Af Albert Jensen (Leksikon.org). Længere artikel.

Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste (FE) (Leksikon.org)

Politiets Efterretningstjeneste (Wikipedia.dk)

PET-kommissionen (Wikipedia.dk)

Politiets Efterretningstjenestes site

PET-kommissionens beretning. Af Johnny Laursen mfl. (Justitsministeriet, 2009, 16 bind). Se bøgerne på sitet Petkommissionen.dk, hvor alle bindene er online som pdf-filer + med navne- og sagsregister. Sitet er p.t. dødt, se i stedet bøgerne online på Internet Archive.

Politiets Efterretningstjeneste. Kommunistiske aktiviteter 1918-1931 (Rigsarkivet). “Arkivserien består af to æsker, hvoraf den ene findes i indskannet form. Den består af politirapporter fra møde, afhøringer mm.”

Tema: Hvem vogter vogterne? (Fred.dk, 1999)

Interview med Preben Wilhjelm (Faklen, nr.12, juli 1999)

De hemmelige tjenester: PET og FE gennem 40 år (pdf). Af Erik Jensen (Demos Nyhedsbrev, nr. 49/50/51, 1998, 92 s.)

PET: Demokratiets beskytter – eller fjende? Af Poul Erik Kristensen (Socialistisk Revy, nr. 3, april 1998) 2010_petlogo.jpg

Litteratur:

Johnny Laursen mfl.: PET-kommissionens beretning. (Justitsministeriet, 2009, 16 bind). Se bøgerne på sitet Petkommissionen.dk, hvor alle bindene er online som pdf-filer + med navne- og sagsregister. Sitet er p.t. dødt, se i stedet bøgerne online på Internet Archive WayBackMachine. Også online på jm.schultzboghandel.dk.

Rasmus Mariager, Regin Schmidt og Morten Heiberg: PET: Den hemmelige historie om Politiets Efterretningstjeneste fra den kolde krig til krigen mod terror (Gyldendal, 2009, 336 s.)
Anmeldelser:
Gammel antikommunisme på nye flasker. Af Chris Holmsted Larsen (Arbejderen, 18. marts 2010)
PET og den kolde krig. Af Preben Etwil (Modkraft.dk, 9. februar 2010)
Vingeskudt PET-debat på Gyldendal. Af Mads Bruun Pedersen (Modkraft.dk, 28. januar 2010)

Helge Scheuer Nielsen: PET og Wamberg-udvalget (Eget forlag, 2009, 33 s.)

De overvågede tager ordet (Frydenlund, 2009, 126 s.). Se anmeldelse af Preben Etwil: PET-kommission som hvidvaskningscentral (Modkraft.dk, 22. februar 2010)

Hans Davidsen-Nielsen: Spionernes krig: historien om Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste (Politiken, 2008, 310 sider). Se anmeldelse af Peer Henrik Hansen (Historie-online.dk)

Hans Davidsen-Nielsen: En højere sags tjeneste: PET under den kolde krig (Politiken, 2006, 400 s.). Se anmeldelse af Martin Jensen (Historie-online.dk)

Preben Wilhjelm: Demokratiets vogtere: 50 års bestræbelser på kontrol med efterretningstjenesten (Centrum, 1999, 332 s.)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

8. maj 1945

Fejringen i Algier af det tyske nederlag fører til selvstændighedskrav og fransk massakre på befolkningen over flere dage og viser at Frankrig ønsker at beholde kolonierne. Massakren i Serif ses som åbningen af den algierske uafhængighedskamp.

Se:

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 1. november 1954, om starten på den algierske uafhængighedskrig.


 

31. maj 1945

Den tyske forfatter og filminstruktør Rainer Werner Fassbinder fødes i Bad Wörishofen, Bayern. (Dør 10. juni 1982 i München).

Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Hanna Schygulla at the Venice Film Festival of 1980. Photo: Gorup de Besanez. (CC BY-SA 4.0).
Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Hanna Schygulla at the Venice Film Festival of 1980. Photo: Gorup de Besanez. (CC BY-SA 4.0). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

Fassbinder, Rainer Werner. Af Christian Braad Thomsen (Leksikon.org)

Rainer Werner Fassbinder (Denstoredanske.dk)

Værtshusbøllen, der blev til verdens smukkeste mand. Af Christian Monggaard (Information.dk, 17. april 2015). Interview med Christian Braad Thomsen om hans film: Fassbinder – at elske uden at kræve.

R.W. Fassbinder at 70: the German filmmaker’s life on display in Berlin. By Hiram Lee (World Socialist Web Site, 23 July 2015)

Werner Fassbinder and the art of political melodrama. By Owen Hatherley (Socialist Worker, UK, Issue 2083, 12 January 2008)

Rainer Werner Fassbinder (Wikipedia.de). Tysk leksikonartikel.

Litteratur:

I Fassbinders spejl: En analyse af Rainer Werner Fassbnders produktion for film, teater, radio og tv. Af Chr. Braad Thomsen (Fremads Fokusbøger, 1975, 297 sider). Filmografi, side 290-

Film:

Fassbinder – to love without demands. Fællesskabsside om Fassbinder (Facebook) om Chr. Braad Thomsens interviewfilm. Se også site: Fassbinder: to love without demands (65 Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin, februar 2015)

Restored version of Fassbinder’s working class drama Eight Hours Don’t Make a Day showing in US. By David Walsh and Joanne Laurier (World Socialist Web Site, 9 April 2018)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 12. oktober 1980, om filmen Berlin Alexanderplatz.


 

1. juni 1945

Dødsstraffen genføres – med tilbagevirkende kraf, ifgl. Lov Nr. 259 af 1. Juni 1945 om Tillæg til Borgerlig Straffelov angaaende Forræderi og anden landsskadelig Virksomhed.

Links:

Retsopgørets love – straffelovstillægget 1945 til 1946 (Danmarkshistorien.dk)


 

19. juni 1945

Demokratiforkæmperen og partilederen Aung San Suu Kyi fødes i Rangoon (Burma), Nobels Fredspris 14. oktober 1991. Siden 1989 har militærregimet i Myanmar (Burma) reelt sat hende i husarrest,  13. november 2010 løsladt. 2012 indtrådte hun i parlamentet, og fra 2016 regeringsleder.

Se:

Aung San Suu Kyi (Wikipedia.org)

Aung San Suu Kyi (Nobelprize.org). Biography: The Nobel Peace prize 1991.
Se også:

Myanmar (Burma) (Leksikon.org)

Index: Burma (International Viewpoint)

Topics: Burma (World Socialist Web Site)

The meaning of Burma’s elections. By Giles Ji Ungpakorn (SocialistWorker.org, April 10, 2012)

Burma: Land of fear. A special report by John Pilger (JohnPilger.com, 1996, 51 min.). “An undercover investigation of slave labour in Burma.”


 

22. juni 1945

Enhedsforhandlingerne starter mellem Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti (DKP) og Socialdemokratiet. Efter 4. forhandlingsmøde 9. august 1945 ophører de.
Ved folketingsvalget 30. oktober får DKP 18 mandater og Socialdemokraterne taber 18.

Litteratur:

Enhed i Arbejderbevægelsen: Kilder til belysning af forhandlingerne mellem Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti og Socialdemokratiet 1945. Af Mogens Nielsen (Fremad i samarbejde med Selskabet til forskning i arbejderbevægelsens historie, 1973, 44 s.; A4-format, online på Slideshare) (Af arbejderbevægelsens historie). Med undervisningsspørgsmål.

Mogens Nielsen: Socialdemokratiet og enheden i arbejderbevægelsen 1943-45 (Institut for Samtidshistories Skriftrække I. Akademisk Forlag, 1978, 201 s.). Anmeldelse af Hans Erik Avlund Frandsen (Historisk Tidsskrift, bind 13, række 6, 1979, s.307-310).

Se også:

DKP. Af Morten Thing  (Leksikon.org). Afsnittet: 1945-47 Efterkrigstid (scroll ned)


 

16. juli 1945

Ved luftvåbenets base i Alamogordo i New Mexico, USA, foretages den første (vellykkede) testsprængning af atombombe.

Se:

Trinity (nuclear test) (Wikipedia.org)

Se også:

Bohr, Heisenberg og atombomben. Af Stig Dall (Ingeniøren, 15.2.2002)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Tidslinjen: 6. august 1945, nedenfor.


 

6. august 1945

Amerikanerne smider kl. 8:16 en atombombe over Hiroshima i Japan (og 9. august over Nagasaki). Japan overgiver sig. (se også 2. september 1945, nedenfor).

In Danish:

Hiroshima atombomben satte gang i krigsmodstanden. Af Jens Riis Bojsen (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr.380, 6. august 2020). “Atombomberne over Hiroshima og Nagasaki den 6. og 9. august 1945 – for 75 år siden – er en af de mest afgørende begivenheder i menneskehedens historie.”

Atombomber over Japan var skyld i færre kræfttilfælde og misdannelser end frygtet. Af Anne Lise Stranden (Videnskaben.dk, 3. september 2016). “Forskerne har i flere årtier fulgt de overlevende efter atombomberne, der hærgede Hiroshima og Nagasaki.”

Derfor kastede USA atombomben. Af Jens Klüver (Socialistisk Arbejderavis, nr.118 , august 1995; genoptrykt i nr.345, 1. juni 2015). “For 50 år siden kastede USA verdens første atombombe over Hiroshima og indledte dermed atomalderen og frygten for en alt-udslettende atomkrig.”

In English:

Hiroshima and the morality of victors. By Kenan Malik (Pandaemonium, August 11, 2020). “The decision 75 years ago to use atomic bombs was fuelled not by strategy but by sheer inhumanity.” With many links.

75 years since the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. By Bill van Auken (World Socialist Web Site, 6 August 2020). “Today marks the 75th anniversary of one of the most terrible war crimes ever carried out by imperialism against a defenseless civilian population, the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.”

Atomic bombings of Japan were a crime against humanity. By Rupen Savoulian (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, August 9, 2015). “Hiroshima – an act of terror masked as a mercy killing.”

The nuclear bomb took capitalist logic to its obscene conclusion. By Simon Basketter (Socialist Worker, Issue 2465, 4 August 2015). “… there was no need.”

70 years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki (International Communist Current, July 29, 2015). “Capitalist barbarism has no limits! As if the hundreds of thousands of deaths of Hiroshima and Nagasaki wasn’t just a foretaste of what decadent capitalism is capable of producing …”

The real reason America used nuclear weapons against Japan: It was not to end the war or save lives. By Washington’s Blog/Global Research, CA (Films For Action, November 2, 2012). Blog with many quotation on the subject.

The winning weapon? Rethinking nuclear weapons in light of Hiroshima. By Ward Wilson (International Security, Vol.31, No.4, Spring 2007, p.162–179). “This article reexamines the widely held presumption that nuclear weapons played a decisive role in winning the war in the Pacific.”

The decision to bomb Hiroshima. By Gar Alperovitz (CounterPunch, August 5, 2011). “… increasing numbers of historians now recognize the United States did not need to use the atomic bomb to end the war against Japan in 1945.”

65 years since the bombing of Hiroshima. By Tom Eley (World Socialist Web Site, 7 August 2010). “The US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand among the most savage acts of violence against a civilian population ever committed.”

The ‘Doomsday Clock’ is still ticking. By Peter Arkell (A World to Win, 2009). Review of Andrew J. Rotter, Hiroshima: the World’s Bomb (Oxford University Press, 2009)

Racing towards the abyss]: the U.S. atomic bombing of Japan. By David Cromwell (Media Alerts, 15 January 2008). “But what about the conventional argument that the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan did, nonetheless, bring about the end of the war? This essay examines critically that view.”

Hiroshima: the ‘White Man’s Bomb’ revisited (Spiked, 6 August 2007). “On the 62nd anniversary of Hiroshima, read Mick Hume’s essay on how the dropping of the A-bomb was the final act of a bitter race war in the Pacific.”

Sixty years since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. By Joseph Kishore
(World Socialist Web Site, August 6-8, 2005). “… in subsequent years much evidence emerged demonstrating that not only were the estimated casualty figures from an invasion highly exaggerated, but that the war could have been quickly ended even without an invasion.”

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Greenpeace, July 25, 2005). Including interview with Peter Kuznick and Mark Selden.

The obliteration of Hiroshima. By Stephen R. Shalom (New Politics, August 3, 2020/New Politics, No.21, Summer 1996, p.153-175). “The review essay below, originally published in 1996, provides a critique of the decision to drop an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima during World War II. Though there has been much additional historical evidence made available since the essay was written, its discussion of the moral and political issues remains relevant today.

Se også/See also:

The Bomb and Civilization, by Bertrand Russell: 18. august 1945

Russell-Einstein-manifestet: 9. juli 1955

On Marxists Internet Archive:

The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. By James P. Cannon (Militant, September 22, 1945)

Postscript: Hiroshima. By Wilfred Burchett (Democracy with a Tommygun. Wadley & Ginn, London 1946)

The Scientists and the Atom Bomb (Fourth International, March 1946, Vol.7 No.3, p.69-70). Review of the Month.

Hiroshima Re-visited. By Brian Pearce (The Newsletter, 3 October 1959)

Zigzag – The Communist Party and the Bomb. By Raymond Challinor (International Socialism, No.3, Winter 1960/61, p.6–11)

NATO, the Bomb and Socialism. By Peter Sedgwick (Universities & Left Review, No.7, Autumn 1959, p.7-13)


 

17. august 1945

George Orwell udgiver romanen Animal Farm / dansk 1947: Kammerat Napoleon.

Se:

‘Animal Farm’: What Orwell really meant (The New York Review of Books, Vol.60, No.12, July 11, 2013). Excerpt from a letter from George Orwell to Dwight Macdonald, written in December 1946.

Orwell’s Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four: Critiques of Stalinism ‘from the left’? By Alex Miller (Links: International Journal of Socialist Renewal, April 2008). “… a re-reading of George Orwell’s two most famous novels. Both have acquired the status of textbooks, and are routinely used in schools to demonstrate to children the inherent dangers of social revolution. It is time for a reappraisal.”

Not all farmers were bad… By John Newsinger (International Socialism, Issue 119, Summer 2008). Review of Daniel J Leab, Orwell subverted: The CIA and the filming of Animal Farm. See also about the 1954 CIA-financed animated production at Wikipedia.org, and the film online at Louis Proyect’s site: Animal Farm, with commentaries by Proyect.

George Orwell: Imagining the totalitarians. By Chris Hickey (Solidarity, 3/34, 10 July 2003). “Written in the form of a fable, Animal Farm is a satirical demolition of the 1940s’ Soviet Union.”

Animal Farm: a new version on US television. By Andy Reiss (World Socialist Web Site, 12 November 1999). “Orwell’s book is a skilful metaphor about the degeneration of the Soviet Union which accords in many respects to Trotsky’s analysis.”

Animal Farm revisited. By John Molyneux (International Socialism, Issue 44, Autumn 1989, p.99-112). “Two serious historical misrepresentations: 1: that Animal Farm and Orwell’s work as a whole can be rescued from the right wing and in some sense claimed for the socialist tradition is quite a popular one; 2: the years immediately following the revolution and in particular the civil war of 1918 to 1921.”

Animal Farm, 1984 and socialist revolution. Chapter Two in Paul O’Flinn: Them and us in literature (London, Pluto Press, 1975). “… the problem that remains with Animal Farm is that it’s a fable and can therefore be directed at any revolution.”

YouTube.com 2:00:05 our, cartoon 1954, animated film by Halas and Batchelor.

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Personlisten Venstrefløjens George Orwell


 

18. august 1945

Senere stifter og leder af britiske Kampagne mod Atomvåben, Bertrand Russell, publicerer den første kendte protest mod atomvåben: “The Bomb and Civilization” i The Glasgow Forward,

Se:

The Bomb and Civilization (The Bertrand Russell Research Centre; McMaster University).

Se også:

Antiatomprotestkampagnen (Leksikon.org)


 

21. august 1945

Den socialdemokratiske kongres vedtager programmet ‘Fremtidens Danmark’ (som for størstedelens vedkommende var skrevet af den unge socialdemokrat Jens Otto Krag).
1945Fremtidens_Danmark_06forsiden.jpg

Se:

Fremtidens Danmark (Leksikon.org).

Kilder: “Fremtidens Danmark” – Socialdemokratiets valgprogram 1945 (Danmarkshistorien.dk).

Jens Otto Krag og »Fremtidens Danmark« (pdf). Af Niels Wium Olesen (Historie/Jyske Samlinger, 19:1, 1991, s.46-72). “[Der redegøres] for udarbejdelsen af programmet, og der betones Jens Otto Krags betydning for at dreje arbejdet væk fra et socialistisk til et keynesiansk sigte.”

Fremtidens Danmark: en analyse af Socialdemokratiets efterkrigsprogram, dets tilblivelse, indhold og formål (pdf). Af Aage Hoffmann (Årbog for arbejderbevægelsens historie, nr.23,  1993, s.245-281). “Jeg vil forsøge at finde frem til, hvilke hensigter Socialdemokratiet havde med ‘Fremtidens Danmark’.”

Fremtidens Danmark – tilbage på plads (pdf). Af Niels Wium Olesen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 1995, s.35-50). “På baggrund af en analyse … i Årbog for arbejderhistorie 1993 diskuteres programmets historie og karakter.”

Fremtidens Danmark er blevet flyttet en smule (pdf). Af Aage Hoffmann (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 1996, s.65-67). “Jeg skal i første omgang forsøge at besvare nogle af de vigtige kritikpunkter, Wium Olesen anlægger …”

Keynes og Fremtidens Danmark (pdf) (Arbejderhistorie, nr.2, 2000, s.89-90). SFAH afholdt 5. april et miniseminar om ‘Fremtidens Danmark’ og Keynes’ med Nils Bredsdorff og Niels Wium Olesen. Referat af diskussionen ved Carsten Frimand.

Fremtidens Danmark, socialdemokraterne og keynesianismen – en doktrinhistorisk undersøgelse. Af Nils Bredsdorff. 2. udvidede udgave. (Skriftserie fra Roskilde Universitetsbibliotek, nr. 35, 2000, 95 sider). Kap. 6 (s.79-91) var indlæg ved seminar om ‘Fremtidens Danmark’. “Ikke blot er Fremtidens Danmark ikke keynesiansk og den socialdemokratiske forståelse af den statslige økonomiske politik ikke båret af nogen type indsigt i Keynes i perioden 1944-46.”

Jens Otto Krag og Keynes (pdf). Af Niels Wium Olesen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.1, 2001, s.28-60). “I 1944 skrev Jens Otto Krag en begejstret aviskronik om Keynes, der kaster nyt lys på spørgsmålet om Keynes-inspirationen i Socialdemokratiets efterkrigsprogram.”

Socialistiske økonomer og Keynes (pdf). Af Lars Andersen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.2, 2002, s.48-65). “I denne artikel stilles der spørgsmålstegn ved den opfattelse, at en række yngre danske socialistiske økonomer i 1930’erne og 1940’-erne tilegnede sig John Maynard Keynes’ økonomiske teorier.”

Fremtidens Danmark og Keynesianismen (pdf). Af Balder Asmussen (Arbejderhistorie, nr.2, 2003, s.61-66). “I dette debatindlæg imødegås påstandene om, at Fremtidens Danmark ikke var under indflydelse af Keynes.”

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

2. september 1945

Med den japanske regerings underskrivelse af kapitulationsdokumenterne ombord på US-slagskibet “Missouri” slutter Anden Verdenskrig.

 


 

2. september 1945

Vietnams uafhængighed erklæres af Ho Chi Minh, leder af den provisoriske vietnamesiske regering (nu Vietnams nationaldag). Kommunisterne “renser ud” i venstreoppositionen (trotskisterne). 21. september starter Vietnamkrigen mod de franske og britiske tropper i Vietnam.

Links på dansk:

Vo Nguyen Giap (left), together with Vietminh forces in the forests near Kao Bak Lang, 1944. Photo: ukendt. Public Domain.
Vo Nguyen Giap (left), together with Vietminh forces in the forests near Kao Bak Lang, 1944. Photo: ukendt. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

In English:

War in Vietnam (1945–46) + August Revolution (Wikipedia.org)

Seventy-five years since the Stalinist murder of Vietnamese Trotskyist leader Ta Thu Thau. By Patrick Martin (World Socialist Web Site, 28 September 2020). “The leader of a Trotskyist group in Saigon, which had a sizeable following in the working class, was executed on the orders of the leadership of the Vietnamese Communist Party.”

The first step on Vietnam’s long walk to freedom. By Ian Birchall (Jacobin, September 2, 2020). “Seventy-five years ago today, Vietnam launched a bid for national freedom with its Declaration of Independence. The French colonial regime answered with brutal repression, kick-starting thirty years of destructive conflict.”

The forgotten massacre of the Vietnamese Trotskyists (Solidarity, 3/79, 1 September 2005). “The example of Vietnam shows why we must remain critical of even the most successful nationalist movements.”

The anti-colonial movement in Vietnam. By Loren Goldner (New Politics, No.23, Summer 1997). Review of Ngo Van, Vietnam 1920-1945, Revolution et contre-revolution sous la domination coloniale (Paris, L’insomniaqe, 1995)

Vietnamese Trotskyism. Chapter in: Robert J. Alexander’s International Trotskyism, 1929-1985, a documented analysis of the movement (Duke University Press, 1991; online at Marxists Internet Archive))

Vietnam Subject Page: Studies in the organization and politics of Trotskyism in Vietnam (Marxists Internet Archive)

Theme: Vietnam: Worker’s revolution and national independence (Revolutionary History, Vol.3, No.2, Autumn 1990, s.8-43). See here:
The Fourth International in Vietnam: Why study it, and what to read, by Simon Pirani.
A ‘Moscow Trial’ in Ho Chi Minh’s guerilla movement, by Ngo Van Xuyet.
Some stages of the revolution in the South of Vietnam (1947)

Vietnam & Trotskyism. By Simon Pirani (Communist League, 1987; online at Marxists Internet Archive). “The book is based on material published in a seven part series in Workers Press, 1986-1987.”

Vietnam 1945: The derailed revolution. By Jim Hensman (In Defence of Marxism, 16 September 1986)

On the nature of the Vietnamese Communist Party. By George Johnson and Fred Feldman (International Socialist Review, Vol.35, No.4, July-August 1973, p.4-9 + 63-90; online at Ozleft). See debate:
The Vietnamese revolution and the role of the party, by Pierre Rousset (November 1973)
Vietnam, Stalinism, and the postwar socialist revolutions, by George Johnson and Fred Feldman (February 1974)

Stalinism and Trotskyism in Vietnam. By John Sharpe (A Spartacist Pamphlet, 1973; online at Marxists Internet Archive)

Stalinism versus revolutionary socialism in Vietnam. By Richard Stephenson [i.e. Al Richardson] (What Next!, No.15, 1999). “This article was first published in 1972 in the Chartist pamphlet Vietnam: Stalinism v. Revolutionary Socialism, and has been edited slightly.”

The new Stalinists and the myth of Ho (pdf). By Julius Jacobson and Laurie Landy (New Politics, Vol.7, No.4, September 1968, p.25-29). “With the death of Ho Chi Minh this affection for totalitarian heroes reached appallingheights.” På dansk: Nystalinisterne og Ho Chi Minh (Information, 24.-25. januar 1970)

Origins and aims of the Viet Cong (pdf). By Gail Kelley (New Politics, Vol.5, No.1, January 1966, p.5-16)

Three letters from Ho Chi Minh (Marxists Internet Archive). Sent from China to the Vietnamese CP in 1939 with attacks on Vietnamese Trotskyists.

Books:

In the Crossfire: Adventures of a Vietnamese Revolutionary. By Ngo Van (AK Press, 2010). See contents + chapters online at Bureau of Public Secrets
Reviews of this book:
The fate of Vietnam’s first revolution. By Simon Pirani (Against the Current, Issue 154, September-October 2011)
Sky without light: A Vietnamese tragedy. By Manfred McDowell (New Politics, No.51, Summer 2011)
Memoir of a Vietnamese Trotskyist. By Dao X. Tran (International Socialist Review, Issue 76, March–April 2011)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

27. oktober 1945

Senere præsident i Brasilien og medstifter af Arbejderpartiet (PT) Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) fødes i delstaten Pernambuco. Præsident 2003-2010.

 

Se:

Et lysglimt på Brasiliens ikke så blå himmel. Af João Machado og Tárzia Medeiros (Socialistisk Information, 29. marts 2021). “Uanset dommer Fachins motiver var det fra et juridisk synspunkt korrekt at omstøde dommen over Lula. Afgørelsen vil få enorme politiske konsekvenser.”

Lula er tilbage – og han kan redde Brasilien fra Bolsonaro. Af Benjamin Fogel (Socialistisk Information, 19. marts 2021). “Efter retskendelsen om, at tidligere præsident Lula da Silva er berettiget til at opstille til næste års valg, er Brasiliens herskende klasse gået i panik. Men for arbejdere, der kæmper med økonomiske problemer og Covid19-pandemien, betyder Lulas tilbagekomst, at der omsider er håb om forandringer.”

Lula løsladt – enden på begyndelsen? Af Lars Bohn (Solidaritet.dk, 13. november 2019). “I fredags blev Brasiliens tidligere præsident Luis Ignacio da Silva (‘Lula’) løsladt fra fængslet, og landets højesteret rejser desuden tvivl om forløbet i den sag, Lula er dømt i. Et vigtigt slag er vundet, selvom kampen for Brasiliens demokrati ikke er overstået endnu.”

Hemmelige dokumenter afdækker kuppet i Brasilien. Af Lars Bohn (Solidaritet.dk, 22. juni 2019). “Nye oplysninger fra The Intercept dokumenterer, hvad der længe har været en offentlig hemmelighed: det brasilianske magtskifte bygger på et regulært kup fra landets højrefløj.”

Why Brazilian workers love Lula. By Andre Pagliarini (Jacobin, July 9, 2021). “Lula rose from humble origins to become a leftist icon, exuding working-class authenticity and successfully bringing working people into the country’s political life. And his story isn’t over: he could soon return to power.”

Lula comes home. By Andre Pagliarini (Jacobin, November 9, 2019). “Lula’s release will not change the course of Brazilian politics by itself. But the leftist leader has already said his time in prison further radicalized him — and that can only bode well for the popular movement resisting Bolsonaro’s reactionary politics.

The meaning of Lula’s imprisonment. By Felipe Demier (Jacobin, 6 April 2018). “The soft coup now underway in Brazil shows just how quickly capitalists can turn against democracy.”

The Lula Question. By Sabrina Fernandes (Jacobin, January 26, 2018). “As Lula’s judicial saga moves into a new stage, the Brazilian left faces more questions than ever.”

From Lula to Dilma. By Michael Löwy (International Viewpoint, Issue 445, February 2012). “The victory of Lula in the elections of 2002 provoked an immense hope of change among the poor and the oppressed in Brazil. However, five years later the balance sheet was globally negative …”

Introduction: Lula’s legacy in Brazil + Dilma as Lula’s successor: The first 100 days, by Emir Sader + The Lula government’s foreign policy: An interview with Emir Sader (NACLA Report on the Americas, Vol.44, Issue 2, March/April 2011)

Lula’s Brazil. By Perry Anderson (London Review of Books, Vol.33, No.7, 31 March 2011). “By any criterion, Luiz Inácio da Silva is the most successful politician of his time.”

Where to with Lula in his second term? From political corruption to legalization of narcotics. By Norman Madarasz (State of Nature, Spring 2007)

Brazil after four years of Lula. By João Machado & José Corrèa Leite (Against The Current, Issue 127, March-April 2007)

Brazil under Lula: An MR survey (Monthly Review, Vol.58, No.9, February 2007)

Lula in the labyrinth. By Francisco de Oliveira (New Left Review, Issue 42, November-December 2006)

Lula and the continuity of Neoliberalism in Brazil: strategic choice, economic imperative orpolitical schizophrenia? (pdf). By Lecio Morais and Alfredo Saad-Filho (Historical Materialism, Vol.13, No.1, 2005, p.3-32)

The left and crisis of the Lula government. By Paulo Trinidade, Rui Polly and Sergio Dominguez (International Socialism, Issue 108, Autumn 2005)

Taking Lula’s measure. By Emir Sader (New Left Review, Issue 33, May-June 2005)

Lula, the IMF, and the Left. By Tom Lewis (International Socialist Review, Issue 39, January-February 2005)

Lula: The World Bank’s president. By Keith Harvey (League for the Fifth International, 30/04/2004)

Brazil’s hope in the balance. By Michael Löwy (Against the Current, Issue 106, September-October 2003)

The long march of Brazil’s Labor Party. By Michael Lowy (Logos, Vol.2, No.2, Spring 2003)

Brazil in the eye of the storm. By Mike Gonzalez (Issue 98, Spring 2003)

Brazil under Lula. By Basilio Abramo (Estrategia Internacional, No.19, January 2003)

New dawn or false start in Brazil? The political economy of Lula’s election (pdf). By Alfredo Saad-Filho (Historical Materialism, Vol.11, No.1, 2003; online at Marxsite)

What change will Lula bring? By Tom Lewis (International Socialist Review, Issue 26, November–December 2002)

Brazil: The struggle against neoliberalism. By Tom Lewis (International Socialist Review, Issue 18, June-July 2001)

Democracy and the organization of class struggle in Brazil. By Huw Beynon and Jorge Ramalho (Socialist Register, 2001, p.219-237)

Brasiliens arbetarparti & socialismen (pdf). Av Michael Löwy (Fjärde Internationalen, nr 4, 1991; online på Marxistarkiv.se)

Se også:

How the New York Review of Books gets Perry Anderson and Brazil wrong. By John Trumpbour (Jacobin, June 21, 2020). “The New York Review of Books has dismissed Perry Anderson’s study of Brazil [Brazil Apart: 1964-2019, Verso, 2019, 240 p.] as a product of stodgy, doctrinaire leftism. But it’s their own reviewer, Larry Rohter, who lets dogma get in the way of facts.”

Learning from disaster: The Workers’ Party and the left in Brazil (Marxist Left Review, Issue 18, Winter 2019). “Mick Armstrong critically assesses the experience of the Workers’ Party, concluding that a far more independent approach was required by revolutionaries who participated.”

The long Brazilian crisis: a forum. Edited and introduced by Juan Grigera and Jeffery R. Webber (Historical Materialism, January 2019). “With this symposium, Historical materialism historically and theoretically situates the current Brazilian conjuncture and contributes to the debate within the left on the international impact of these events, inviting further reflection on the moment of danger opening up before us.”

Brazil: Neoliberalism versus Democracy. By Orlando Hill (Counterfire, April 5, 2018). Review of Alfredo Saad-Filho and Lecio Morais’ book (Pluto Press, 2018, 237 p.): “Saad-Filho and Morais use this Marxist understanding of history to gain an insight into Brazil’s political transition from dictatorship to democracy, and the economic transition from an import-substituting industrialisation policy (ISI) to neoliberalism.”

Crisis in Brazil. By Perry Anderson (London Review of Books, Vol.38, No.8, 21 April 2016). “Dilma Rousseff’s … Workers’ Party, which had long enjoyed by far the highest level of approval in Brazil, became the most unpopular party in the country.” Svensk udgave: Kris i Brasilien (pdf) (Marxistarkiv.se, 1. maj 2016)

Brasiliens nye præsident: ‘Vi må bryde tavshedens mure omkring de blytunge år’ (Autonom Infoservice, 27. april 2011)

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

  • Tidslinjen: 28. oktober 2018, om præsidentvalget i Brasilien, som vindes af højrekandidaten Jair Bolsonaro.
  • Tidslinjen: 1. juni 2013, om folkeligt oprør i Brasilien.

 

10. oktober 1945

Morten Thing under Bogforum 2015 i København. Foto: Mogens Engelund. (CC BY-SA 3.0).
Morten Thing under Bogforum 2015 i København. Foto: Mogens Engelund. (CC BY-SA 3.0). Kilde: Wikimedia Commons.

Venstrefløjsforskeren Morten Thing fødes.

Se:

Morten Thing (Leksikon.org)

Morten Things hjemmeside

Litteratur:

Kommunismens kultur : DKP og de intellektuelle 1918-1960. Af Morten Thing (Tiderne Skrifter, 1993, 2 bind). Doktordisputats.

Se på Socialistisk Bibliotek:

Personlisten: Morten Thing


 

24. oktober 1945

FN-pagten underskrives af verdenskrigens sejrende stormagter mfl. og dagen blir officiel FN-dag.

Se:

Forenede Nationer (Wikipedia.dk). Og længere engelsksproget artikel (Wikipedia.org).

UN City Copenhagen (site).

FN (Leksikon.org).

Se også:

FN-Forbundet; Danish United Nations Association (site).

FN: Et værktøj for imperialismen. Af Daniel Morley (Revolution, 9. maj 2016).

The United Nations and the politics of imperialism. By Duncan Blackie (International Socialism, Issue 63, Summer 1994).


 

20. november 1945

Retssagerne mod tyske ledere for krigsforbrydelser starter i Nürnberg, og sætter standard for krigsforbrydelser.

Nuremberg Trials: looking down on the defendants' dock. Ca. 1945-46. Office of the U.S. Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Photographs relating to Major Nurenburg Trials, compiled 1945 - 1946, NWDNS-238-NT-592. Photo: Ray D'Addario. Public Domain.
Nuremberg Trials: looking down on the defendants’ dock. Ca. 1945-46. Office of the U.S. Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Photographs relating to Major Nurenburg Trials, compiled 1945 – 1946, NWDNS-238-NT-592. Photo: Ray D’Addario. Public Domain. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Se:

Nürnbergdommene (Leksikon.org)

Retsopgøret (The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies; Holocaust uddannelse)

Nürnbergprocessen (Wikipedia.dk) + Nuremberg Trials (Wikipedia.org)

The International Military Tribunal for Germany: The Nuremberg Trials Collection (The Avalon Project)

The Nuremberg Trials 1945-48 (Famous Trials by Dough Lindner; UMKC School of Law)

Seventy years since the Nuremberg Trials. By Verena Nees (World Socialist Web Site, 3 December 2015)

Forty years since the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial. By Sybille Fuchs (World Socialist Web Site, 2004): Part 1: A belated inquiry (27 April) + Part 2: The accused: henchmen acting under orders (28 April) + Part 3: Juridical cover-up of Nazi crimes (29 April)

Litteratur:

Maskerne falder i Nürnberg. Af Helge Knudsen og Henrik V. Ringsted (Gyldendal, 1946, 268 sider).

Se også på Socialistisk Bibliotek:


 

1. december 19451945demokratkv.gif

Women’s International Democratic Federation, (WIDF)/Kvindernes Demokratiske Verdensforbund stiftes på kongres i Paris. Dansk medlem: Danmarks Demokratiske Kvindeforbund, DDF.

Se:


 

10. december 1945

Første nummer af the tidsskriftet Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists udkommer, “to educate citizens about global security issues”.

Se:

Bulletin for the Atomic Scientists


 

28. december 1945

Den amerikanske forfatter Theodore Dreiser dør i Hollywood, Californien, USA. (Født Terre Haute, Indiana, 27. august 1871, se denne).


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